ABSTRACT: Sex hormones and reproductive factors may be important for osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to describe the associations of parity, use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral contraceptives (OCs) with cartilage volume, cartilage defects and radiographic OA in a population-based sample of older women.
Cross-sectional study of 489 women aged 50-80 years. Parity, use of HRT and OC was assessed by questionnaire; knee cartilage volume and defects by magnetic resonance imaging and knee joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytes by X-ray.
Parity was associated with a deficit in total knee cartilage volume [adjusted β=-0.69 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.34, -0.04]. Increasing parity was associated with decreasing cartilage volume in both the tibial compartment and total knee (both P trend <0.05). Parity was also associated with greater cartilage defects in the patella compartment [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.87, 95% CI=1.39, 5.93] but not other sites. There was a consistent but non-significant increase in knee JSN (OR=2.78, 95% CI=0.75, 10.31) and osteophytes (OR=1.69, 95% CI=0.59, 4.82) for parous women. Use of HRT and/or OC was not associated with cartilage volume, cartilage defects or radiographic change.
Parity (but not use of HRT or OC) is independently associated with lower cartilage volume primarily in the tibial compartment and higher cartilage defects in the patella compartment in this population-based sample of older women.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 08/2011; 19(11):1307-13. · 3.90 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between change in daily step count and both adiposity and insulin sensitivity and the extent to which the association between change in daily step count and insulin sensitivity may be mediated by adiposity.
Population based cohort study.
592 adults (men (n=267), mean age 51.4 (SD 12.2) years; women (n=325), mean age 50.3 (12.3) years) who participated in the Tasmanian component of the national AusDiab Study in 2000 and 2005.
Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and HOMA insulin sensitivity at follow-up in 2005.
Over the five year period, the daily step count decreased for 65% (n=382) of participants. Having a higher daily step count in 2005 than in 2000 was independently associated with lower body mass index (0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.12) lower per 1000 steps), lower waist to hip ratio (0.15 (0.07 to 0.23) lower), and greater insulin sensitivity (1.38 (0.14 to 2.63) HOMA units higher) in 2005. The mean increase in HOMA units fell to 0.34 (-0.79 to 1.47) after adjustment for body mass index in 2005.
Among community dwelling, middle aged adults, a higher daily step count at five year follow-up than at baseline was associated with better insulin sensitivity. This effect seems to be largely mediated through lower adiposity.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 01/2011; 342:c7249.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this analysis was to examine associations between lung health in childhood and mortality between ages 18 and 44 years in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS).
The 1961 Tasmanian birth cohort who attended school in 1968 (n=8583) were linked to the Australian National Death Index (NDI) to identify deaths. Additional deaths were notified by families through a 37 year follow-up postal questionnaire. Information on lung health at age 7 years and on potential confounders was obtained from the original 1968 TAHS survey and school medical records. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to assess determinants of mortality.
A total of 264 (3%) deaths were identified. The principal causes of death were external injury (56.1%, n=97) and cancer (17.9%, n=31). Males were more likely than females to have died (p=<0.1). Only two (1.1%) participants had died from respiratory conditions. Having an FEV(1)<80% predicted at 7 years of age was associated with a 2-fold increased incidence of death. Tonsillectomy before age 7 years was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in mortality (p=0.05); being male with a 3.6-fold increase in mortality (p=0.0001); and repeated chest illnesses at age 7 years causing >30 days confinement in the last year, was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in mortality (p=0.03).
Childhood lung health appears to be associated with increased mortality in adulthood, perhaps by affecting the ability to survive trauma, major illnesses and other physical stresses.
Respiratory medicine 06/2010; 104(6):808-15. · 2.33 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The association between hormonal contraceptive use and bone mineral density remains controversial.
Hormonal contraceptive use is positively associated with bone mass in young premenopausal women.
Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from women aged 26-36 years (n = 687) in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study-a longitudinal study investigating childhood determinants of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases in adulthood. Participants were not currently pregnant or breast-feeding. Contraceptive use was obtained by self-administered questionnaire. Women were categorized as combined oral contraceptive users (n = 219), progestogen-only contraceptive users (n = 43), and non-users of hormonal contraceptives (n = 425). Bone mass was measured by quantitative ultrasound.
Compared with women who were not using any hormonal contraceptives, women using combined oral contraceptives had significantly higher values of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound, and quantitative ultrasound index. These associations remained after adjustment for confounders. Progestogen-only contraceptive users had higher BUA than non-users, but the differences were not statistically significant in this small group.
Combined oral contraceptive use was associated with higher bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound in this population-based sample of premenopausal women aged 26-36 while progestogen-only contraceptives appeared to have no deleterious effect on bone mass.
Osteoporosis International 02/2010; 22(1):351-5. · 4.58 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We studied the association between osteoporotic fractures and prior non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, a biomarker for cumulative sun exposure). The risk of prior NMSC in our fracture cohort was significantly reduced (standardised incidence ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.61, 0.78). Adequate lifetime sun exposure may be necessary to protect against osteoporotic fractures in later life.
The relationship between cumulative sun exposure and osteoporotic fractures is uncertain. We aimed to study the association between non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), a marker of cumulative sun exposure, and osteoporotic fractures in an older cohort.
A retrospective cohort study in southern Tasmania in people aged at least 50 years with incident radiographic fracture (n = 2,283) was carried out. By record linkage to the Tasmanian Cancer Registry the cohort was followed backwards through time until the occurrence of NMSC or end-of follow-up. Relative risk was estimated by the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) using sex-, age- and calendar year-specific cancer incidence rates in southern Tasmania as reference.
The incidence of prior NMSC in the fracture cohort was 31% lower than for the general population (SIR 0.69, 95% CI 0.61, 0.78). This effect was significant for most fracture subtypes except pelvic and wrist fractures and observed for both NMSC subtypes, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
Older people with osteoporotic fractures may have had lifestyles linked to lower cumulative sunlight exposure. Achieving a balance between adequate lifetime sun exposure and protection against its adverse effects (such as fractures and skin cancer) may require assessment of individual risks.
Osteoporosis International 06/2007; 18(5):687-92. · 4.58 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Syndrome X (clustering of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension) in adults with central obesity has been suggested to be a consequence of poor foetal development. We investigated clustering of syndrome X factors in a sample of 8-y-old Australian children, and whether the clusters were associated with size at birth and childhood obesity.
Longitudinal, 1997 follow-up of children enrolled as singleton-born neonates in 1989.
A total of 298 healthy Australian children (208 boys, 90 girls, age range 7.4-8.9 y).
Anthropometry at birth and at 4 weeks. In 1997, at 8 y of age: fasting insulin and glucose, total and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure.
Adverse levels of insulin and glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides co-existed more often than expected by chance (P<0.01). Three factors were identified in factor analysis: one loading on systolic and diastolic blood pressure ('blood pressure'); a second loading on insulin and glucose ('insulin resistance'); and a third loading negatively on HDL-cholesterol and positively on triglycerides ('dyslipidaemia'). The blood pressure factor was correlated with fatness at age 8 y (eg fat mass estimated from skin folds, r=0.11) and, after adjustment for current size, with birth weight (r=-0.15). Fat mass was also correlated with both 'insulin resistance' (r=0.24) and 'dyslipidaemia' (r=0.19). The increase in 'insulin resistance' (P=0.03) and 'dyslipidaemia' (P<0.01) per category of fat mass was greatest for subjects with higher-than-median subscapular-to-triceps ratio of skin folds. Neither 'insulin resistance' nor 'dyslipidaemia' was associated with anthropometry at birth.
The Syndrome X risk variables clustered among children who had a tendency to deposit fat on the trunk. There was no evidence in this sample that infant size predicts development of the insulin resistance or dyslipidaemic components of the syndrome by age 8.
International Journal of Obesity 11/2002; 26(10):1301-9. · 4.69 Impact Factor