ABSTRACT: Thyroid dysfunction (TD) is a well-established adverse effect in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-α), with or without ribavirin. However, the long-term outcome is not well-studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and long-term outcome of TD after HCV-therapy.
Retrospective analysis of 109 HCV-treated patients (for 6 to 12 months, according to HCV genotype), for the period 1996 to 2008. Thyroid function tests were performed every 3 months during therapy and after discontinuation (3 months to 12 years). Routine laboratory tests and virological assessment were performed according to generally accepted practice.
TD was observed in 26 patients (23.85%). The positive and negative predictive value for thyroid autoantibodies (ATA) was 80% and 72.7%, respectively. Relative risk for those with positive ATA was 2.9 (95% CI: 1.6 to 5.3, P = 0.014). The median duration of TD was 12.0 months (min: 3; max: 132). The median follow-up period for the patients with TD was 25.5 months (min: 12; max: 144). Finally, 15 patients developed permanent TD (57.69%), compared to 11 with temporary TD (42.31%). Sex is a risk factor for TD, as there were more females than males affected (P = 0.011). Genotype, viral load, time of HCV-exposure prior to therapy, and virological response did not differ between patients with and without TD.
TD among HCV-treated patients was more frequent than usually reported, with >50% developing permanent TD. ATA status may play a role in estimating the risk of subsequent TD. Women appear to be more vulnerable to TD than men.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 09/2011; 40(9):394-400. · 1.25 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Long-term statin treatment reduces the frequency of cardiovascular events, but safety and efficacy in patients with abnormal liver tests is unclear. We assessed whether statin therapy is safe and effective for these patients through post-hoc analysis of the Greek Atorvastatin and Coronary Heart Disease Evaluation (GREACE) study population.
GREACE was a prospective, intention-to-treat study that randomly assigned by a computer-generated randomisation list 1600 patients with coronary heart disease (aged <75 years, with serum concentrations of LDL cholesterol >2·6 mmol/L and triglycerides <4·5 mmol/L) at the Hippokration University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece to receive statin or usual care, which could include statins. The primary outcome of our post-hoc analysis was risk reduction for first recurrent cardiovascular event in patients treated with a statin who had moderately abnormal liver tests (defined as serum alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase concentrations of less than three times the upper limit of normal) compared with patients with abnormal liver tests who did not receive a statin. This risk reduction was compared with that for patients treated (or not) with statin and normal liver tests.
Of 437 patients with moderately abnormal liver tests at baseline, which were possibly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, 227 who were treated with a statin (mainly atorvastatin 24 mg per day) had substantial improvement in liver tests (p<0·0001) whereas 210 not treated with a statin had further increases of liver enzyme concentrations. Cardiovascular events occurred in 22 (10%) of 227 patients with abnormal liver tests who received statin (3·2 events per 100 patient-years) and 63 (30%) of 210 patients with abnormal liver tests who did not receive statin (10·0 events per 100 patient-years; 68% relative risk reduction, p<0·0001). This cardiovascular disease benefit was greater (p=0·0074) than it was in patients with normal liver tests (90 [14%] events in 653 patients receiving a statin [4·6 per 100 patient-years] vs 117 [23%] in 510 patients not receiving a statin [7·6 per 100 patient-years]; 39% relative risk reduction, p<0·0001). Seven (<1%) of 880 participants who received a statin discontinued statin treatment because of liver-related adverse effects (transaminase concentrations more than three-times the upper limit of normal).
Statin treatment is safe and can improve liver tests and reduce cardiovascular morbidity in patients with mild-to-moderately abnormal liver tests that are potentially attributable to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
The Lancet 12/2010; 376(9756):1916-22. · 38.28 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: There is a need to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnosed by the new Joint Interim Societies (JIS) MetS definition. The JIS definition was compared with three previous definitions to assess their ability to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
A cross-sectional analysis of a representative sample of Greek adults (n = 9669) was performed to estimate the prevalence of MetS and CVD using the JIS vs. the three older definitions of MetS: the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATP-III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) definitions.
The age-adjusted MetS prevalence was 45.7%, 43.4%, 24.5% and 26.3% (ANOVA p < 0.001) with the JIS, IDF, NCEP and AHA/NHLBI definitions. The prevalence of CVD was 11.4% in the whole study population and 17.6%, 18.3%, 23.3%, 22.6% and in subjects with MetS according to the JIS, IDF, NCEP and AHA/NHLBI definitions (ANOVA p < 0.001). The prevalence of CVD was only 10.4% (i.e., lower than in the whole study population) in subjects with MetS according to the JIS but not according to the NCEP-ATP-III and AHA/NHLBI definitions (p < 0.001 vs. subjects with MetS as defined by NCEP-ATP-III or AHA/NHLBI).
When diagnosed according to the new JIS definition, the prevalence of MetS was high in a Greek Mediterranean cohort (nearly half of the adult population). The NCEP-ATP-III and AHA/NHLBI definitions were more predictive of CVD risk than the new JIS definition. These findings, though limited by the cross sectional analysis, may have implications regarding the choice of the definition to diagnose MetS.
Current Medical Research and Opinion 03/2010; 26(3):713-9. · 2.38 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 33-year-old female patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome because of polycythemia vera. A transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunt was performed because of refractory ascites 7 months after diagnosis. She had a stable hepatic function receiving anticoagulants until 3 years later when she presented with bloody diarrheas, liver function deterioration with prolonged prothrombin time and hypoalbuminemia, encephalopathy, and ascites. Colonoscopy revealed ulcerative pancolitis and the patient was treated with corticosteroids and antibiotics. Hepatic function was stabilized in parallel to controlling ulcerative colitis and the patient is in good health until now receiving maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis and anticoagulants for Budd-Chiari syndrome.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 02/2009; 21(1):109-13. · 1.66 Impact Factor