[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a lung disease characterized by a deficiency of functional granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) resulting in surfactant accumulation and lipid-engorged alveolar macrophages. GM-CSF is a positive regulator of PPARγ that is constitutively expressed in healthy alveolar macrophages. We previously reported decreased PPARγ and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) levels in alveolar macrophages from PAP patients and GM-CSF knockout (KO) mice, suggesting PPARγ and ABCG1 involvement in surfactant catabolism. Because ABCG1 represents a PPARγ target, we hypothesized that PPARγ restoration would increase ABCG1 and reduce macrophage lipid accumulation. Upregulation of PPARγ was achieved using a lentivirus expression system in vivo. GM-CSF KO mice received intratracheal instillation of lentivirus (lenti)-PPARγ or control lenti-eGFP. Ten days postinstillation, 79% of harvested alveolar macrophages expressed eGFP, demonstrating transduction. Alveolar macrophages showed increased PPARγ and ABCG1 expression after lenti-PPARγ instillation, whereas PPARγ and ABCG1 levels remained unchanged in lenti-eGFP controls. Alveolar macrophages from lenti-PPARγ-treated mice also exhibited reduced intracellular phospholipids and increased cholesterol efflux to HDL, an ABCG1-mediated pathway. In vivo instillation of lenti-PPARγ results in: 1) upregulating ABCG1 and PPARγ expression of GM-CSF KO alveolar macrophages, 2) reducing intracellular lipid accumulation, and 3) increasing cholesterol efflux activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surfactant accumulates in alveolar macrophages of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) knockout (KO) mice and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) patients with a functional loss of GM-CSF resulting from neutralizing anti-GM-CSF antibody. Alveolar macrophages from PAP patients and GM-CSF KO mice are de-ficient in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) lipid transporter ABCG1. Previous studies have demonstrated that GM-CSF induces PPARgamma. We therefore hypothesized that PPARgamma promotes surfactant catabolism through regulation of ABCG1. To address this hypothesis, macrophage-specific PPARgamma (MacPPARgamma) knockout mice were utilized. MacPPARgamma KO mice develop foamy, lipid-engorged Oil Red O positive alveolar macrophages. Lipid analyses revealed significant increases in the cholesterol and phospholipid contents of MacPPARgamma KO alveolar macrophages and extracellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-derived fluids. MacPPARgamma KO alveolar macrophages showed decreased expression of ABCG1 and a deficiency in ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux to HDL. Lipid metabolism may also be regulated by liver X receptor (LXR)-ABCA1 pathways. Interestingly, ABCA1 and LXRbeta expression were elevated, indicating that this pathway is not sufficient to prevent surfactant accumulation in alveolar macrophages. These results suggest that PPARgamma mediates a critical role in surfactant homeostasis through the regulation of ABCG1.
The Journal of Lipid Research 06/2010; 51(6):1325-31. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M001651 · 4.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear transcription factor involved in lipid metabolism that is constitutively expressed in the alveolar macrophages of healthy individuals. PPARgamma has recently been implicated in the catabolism of surfactant by alveolar macrophages, specifically the cholesterol component of surfactant while the mechanism remains unclear. Studies from other tissue macrophages have shown that PPARgamma regulates cholesterol influx, efflux, and metabolism. PPARgamma promotes cholesterol efflux through the liver X receptor-alpha (LXRalpha) and ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1). We have recently shown that macrophage-specific PPARgamma knockout (PPARgamma KO) mice accumulate cholesterol-laden alveolar macrophages that exhibit decreased expression of LXRalpha and ABCG1 and reduced cholesterol efflux. We hypothesized that in addition to the dysregulation of these cholesterol efflux genes, the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and influx was also dysregulated and that replacement of PPARgamma would restore regulation of these genes. To investigate this hypothesis, we have utilized a Lentivirus expression system (Lenti-PPARgamma) to restore PPARgamma expression in the alveolar macrophages of PPARgamma KO mice. Our results show that the alveolar macrophages of PPARgamma KO mice have decreased expression of key cholesterol synthesis genes and increased expression of cholesterol receptors CD36 and scavenger receptor A-I (SRA-I). The replacement of PPARgamma (1) induced transcription of LXRalpha and ABCG1; (2) corrected suppressed expression of cholesterol synthesis genes; and (3) enhanced the expression of scavenger receptors CD36. These results suggest that PPARgamma regulates cholesterol metabolism in alveolar macrophages.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2010; 393(4):682-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.02.056 · 2.30 Impact Factor