[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only d-allose, among various rare monosaccharides tested, induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in susceptible rice leaves with defence responses: reactive oxygen species, lesion mimic formation, and PR-protein gene expression. These responses were suppressed by ascorbic acid or diphenylene iodonium. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsrbohC, encoding NADPH oxidase, were enhanced in sensitivity to d-allose. d-Allose-mediated defence responses were suppressed by the presence of a hexokinase inhibitor. 6-Deoxy-d-allose, a structural derivative of d-allose unable to be phosphorylated, did not confer resistance. Transgenic rice plants expressing Escherichia coli AlsK encoding d-allose kinase to increase d-allose 6-phosphate synthesis were more sensitive to d-allose, but E. coli AlsI encoding d-allose 6-phosphate isomerase expression to decrease d-allose 6-phosphate reduced sensitivity. A d-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-defective mutant was also less sensitive, and OsG6PDH1 complementation restored full sensitivity. These results reveal that a monosaccharide, d-allose, induces rice resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae by activating NADPH oxidase through the activity of d-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, initiated by hexokinase-mediated conversion of d-allose to d-allose 6-phosphate, and treatment with d-allose might prove to be useful for reducing disease development in rice.
Journal of Experimental Botany 09/2013; · 5.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that a rare sugar D-allose, which is the D-glucose epimer at C3, inhibits the gibberellin-dependent responses such as elongation of the second leaf sheath and induction of α-amylase in embryo-less half seeds in rice (Fukumoto et al. 2011). D-Allose suppresses expressions of gibberellin-responsive genes downstream of SLR1 protein in the gibberellin-signaling through hexokinase (HXK)-dependent pathway. In this study, we discovered that D-allose induced expression of ABA-related genes including OsNCED1-3 and OsABA8ox1-3 in rice. Interestingly, D-allose also up-regulated expression of OsABF1, encoding a conserved bZIP transcription factor in ABA signaling, in rice. The D-allose-induced expression of OsABF1 was diminished by a hexokinase inhibitor, D-mannoheptulose (MNH). Consistently, D-allose also inhibited Arabidopsis growth, but failed to trigger growth retardation in the glucose-insensitive2 (gin2) mutant, which is a loss-of-function mutant of the glucose sensor AtHXK1. D-Allose activated AtABI5 expression in transgenic gin2 over-expressing wild-type AtHXK1 but not in gin2 over-expressing the catalytic mutant AtHXK1(S177A), indicating that the D-allose phosphorylation by HXK to D-allose 6-phosphate (A6P) is the first step for the up-regulation of AtABI5 gene expression as well as D-allose-induced growth inhibition. Moreover, overexpression of OsABF1 showed increased sensitivity to D-allose in rice. These findings indicated that the phosphorylation of D-allose at C6 by hexokinase is essential and OsABF1 is involved in the signal transduction for D-allose-induced growth inhibition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the rare sugars, D-allose, which is the epimer of D-glucose at C3, has an inhibitory effect on rice growth, but the molecular mechanisms of the growth inhibition by D-allose were unknown. The growth inhibition caused by D-allose was prevented by treatment with hexokinase inhibitors, D-mannoheptulose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Furthermore, the Arabidopsis glucose-insensitive2 (gin2) mutant, which is a loss-of-function mutant of the glucose sensor AtHXK1, showed a D-allose-insensitive phenotype. D-Allose strongly inhibited the gibberellin-dependent responses such as elongation of the second leaf sheath and induction of α-amylase in embryo-less half rice seeds. The growth of the slender rice1 (slr1) mutant, which exhibits a constitutive gibberellin-responsive phenotype, was also inhibited by D-allose, and the growth inhibition of the slr1 mutant by D-allose was also prevented by D-mannoheptulose treatment. The expressions of gibberellin-responsive genes were down-regulated by D-allose treatment, and the down-regulations of gibberellin-responsive genes were also prevented by D-mannoheptulose treatment. These findings reveal that D-allose inhibits the gibberellin-signaling through a hexokinase-dependent pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined rice responses to a rare sugar, d-psicose. Rice growth was inhibited by d-psicose but not by common sugars. Microarray analysis revealed that d-psicose treatment caused an upregulation of many defense-related genes in rice, and dose-dependent upregulation of these genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The level of upregulation of defense-related genes by d-psicose was low compared with that by d-allose, which is another rare sugar known to confer induction of resistance to rice bacterial blight in rice. Treatment with d-psicose conferred resistance to bacterial blight in rice in a dose-dependent manner, and the results indicate that d-psicose might be a candidate plant activator for reducing disease development in rice.
Journal of plant physiology 05/2011; 168(15):1852-7. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated responses of rice plant to three rare sugars, d-altrose, d-sorbose, and d-allose, due to establishment of mass production methods for these rare sugars. Root growth and shoot growth were significantly inhibited by d-allose but not by the other rare sugars. A large-scale gene expression analysis using a rice microarray revealed that d-allose treatment causes a high upregulation of many defense-related, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes in rice. The PR protein genes were not upregulated by other rare sugars. Furthermore, d-allose treatment of rice plants conferred limited resistance of the rice against the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae but the other tested sugars did not. These results indicate that d-allose has a growth inhibitory effect but might prove to be a candidate elicitor for reducing disease development in rice.