Ghazwan Butrous

London Research Institute, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (38)148.73 Total impact

  • Ghazwan Butrous
    Annals of Thoracic Medicine 07/2014; 9(3):131-3. · 1.12 Impact Factor
  • Ghazwan Butrous
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    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with the parasite Schistosoma, which is a flat-worm or fluke. The dominant species are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis is the third most common parasitic disease in the world after malaria and amoebiasis. It is endemic in more than 70 countries affecting about 200 million people worldwide, of whom 80% are in sub-Saharan Africa. There are pockets of infection in north-eastern Brazil, near the Yangtze River in China, and some pockets in south East Asia. In the East Mediterranean regions, the Schistosoma have been reported in Iraq and Egypt as well as in Sudan. The latter has the highest infection rate nowadays, particularly in the Al Jazeera area, due to the poor Schistosoma control program. In the Arabian peninsula, schistosomiasis has been reported in southwest part of Saudi Arabia, mainly in the Asir province and Jizan province, which lay in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia and directly north of the border with Yemen. The efforts to control schistosomiasis have been very successful in Saudi Arabia due to the irrigation system control. However, the infection is prone in Yemen, where the schistosomiasis control is much less strict. Thus as a result, the problem still exists due to transmigration of the populations from both countries. As a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), schistosomiasis is still under diagnosed and undertreated. This article with give a highlight about the pathophysiology of the disease and both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
    Annals of Thoracic Medicine 07/2014; 9(Suppl 1):S38-41. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Saudi Association for Pulmonary Hypertension (previously called Saudi Advisory Group for Pulmonary Hypertension) has published the first Saudi Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension back in 2008.[1] That guideline was very detailed and extensive and reviewed most aspects of pulmonary hypertension (PH). One of the disadvantages of such detailed guidelines is the difficulty that some of the readers who just want to get a quick guidance or looking for a specific piece of information might face. All efforts were made to develop this guideline in an easy-to-read form, making it very handy and helpful to clinicians dealing with PH patients to select the best management strategies for the typical patient suffering from a specific condition. This Guideline was designed to provide recommendations for problems frequently encountered by practicing clinicians involved in management of PH. This publication targets mainly adult and pediatric PH-treating physicians, but can also be used by other physicians interested in PH.
    Annals of Thoracic Medicine 07/2014; 9(Suppl 1):S1-S15. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    Pulmonary circulation. 03/2014; 4(1):1.
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disorder that develops as a result of remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and is characterized by narrowing/obliteration of small pulmonary arteries, leading to increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Subsequently, PH increases the right ventricular afterload, which leads to right ventricular hypertrophy and eventually right ventricular failure. The pathophysiology of PH is not fully elucidated, and current treatments have only a modest impact on patient survival and quality of life. Thus, there is an urgent need for improved treatments or a cure. The use of animal models has contributed extensively to the current understanding of PH pathophysiology and the investigation of experimental treatments. However, PH in current animal models may not fully represent current clinical observations. For example, PH in animal models appears to be curable with many therapeutic interventions, and the severity of PH in animal models is also believed to correlate poorly with that observed in humans. In this review, we discuss a variety of animal models in PH research, some of their contributions to the field, their shortcomings, and how these have been addressed. We highlight the fact that the constant development and evolution of animal models will help us to more closely model the severity and heterogeneity of PH observed in humans.
    Pulmonary circulation. 12/2013; 3(4):739-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenic mechanisms underlying pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to schistosomiasis, one of the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) worldwide, remains unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-β signaling as a consequence of Th2 inflammation is critical for the pathogenesis of this disease. Mice sensitized and subsequently challenged with S. mansoni eggs developed PH associated with an increase in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickening of the pulmonary artery media, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Rho-kinase dependent vasoconstriction accounted for about 60% of the increase in RVSP. The pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH were dependent on increased TGF-β signaling, as pharmacological blockade of the TGF-β ligand and receptor, and mice lacking Smad3 were significantly protected from Schistosoma-induced PH. Blockade of TGF-β signaling also led to a decrease in IL4 and IL13 concentrations, which drive the Th2 responses characteristic of schistosomiasis lung pathology. Lungs of patients with schistosomiasis-associated PAH have evidence of TGF-β signaling in their remodeled pulmonary arteries. Experimental S. mansoni-induced pulmonary vascular disease relies on canonical TGF-β signaling.
    Circulation 08/2013; · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Schistosomiasis is one of the most common causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension worldwide, but the pathogenic mechanism by which the host inflammatory response contributes to vascular remodeling is unknown. We sought to identify signaling pathways that play protective or pathogenic roles in experimental Schistosoma-induced pulmonary vascular disease by whole-lung transcriptome analysis. Methods: Wildtype mice were experimentally exposed to S. mansoni ova by intraperitoneal sensitization followed by tail vein augmentation, and the phenotype assessed by right ventricular catheterization and tissue histology, RNA and protein analysis. Whole-lung transcriptome analysis by microarray and RNA sequencing was performed, the latter analyzed using 2 bioinformatic methods. Functional testing of the candidate IL-6 pathway was determined using IL6-knockout mice and the STAT3 inhibitor STI-201. Results: Wild-type mice exposed to S. mansoni had increased right ventricular systolic pressure and thickness of the pulmonary vascular media. Whole lung transcriptome analysis identified the IL6-STAT3-NFATc2 pathway as being upregulated, which was confirmed by PCR and immunostaining of lung tissue from S. mansoni-exposed mice and patients who died of the disease. Mice lacking IL6 or treated with STI-201 developed pulmonary hypertension associated with significant intima remodeling after exposure to S. mansoni. Conclusions: Whole lung transcriptome analysis identified upregulation of the IL6-STAT3-NFATc2 pathway, and IL6 signaling was found to be protective against Schistosoma-induced intimal remodeling.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 07/2013; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis is a global parasitic disease with high impact on public health in tropical areas. Schistosomiasis is a well-described cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The exact pathogenesis is still unclear, though inflammatory mechanisms are suspected. Another unknown is whether the changes in the pulmonary vasculature are generalized or localized. We studied 13 mice infected with cercariae for 12 weeks compared with 10 control mice. In our model, we observed that the liver was a target during infection and was enlarged more than two-fold after infection. However, right heart hypertrophy as measured by RV/(LV + S) ratio was not observed at this time point. Moreover, we noticed that 72% of the sampled lobes (92% of the lungs) harvested from these animals costained evidence of granulomatous changes, secondary to egg deposition. We systemically mapped the distribution of granulomatous lesions in right lung lobes (n = 43) of infected mice. We observed that the distribution of the granulomatous lesions was heterogeneous. Remodeled pulmonary vessels were seen in 26% of the lobes (46% of the lungs) and were observed only in close proximity to the granuloma. No remodeling was observed in the absence of granulomas. These findings support the view that pulmonary vascular remodeling is caused by the local presence of granulomas in PAH associated with schistosomiasis. The heterogeneous nature of the remodeling partly explains why many patients with schistosomiasis do not develop pulmonary hypertension.
    Pulmonary circulation. 04/2013; 3(2):356-62.
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    Pulmonary circulation. 01/2013; 3(1):1-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive pulmonary vascular disorder with high morbidity and mortality. Compelling evidence suggests that receptor tyrosine kinases, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are closely involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We investigated the effects of 2 novel PDGF inhibitors, nilotinib/AMN107 (Abl kinases/PDGF receptor inhibitor) and dasatinib/BMS-354825 (Abl kinases/PDGF receptor/Src inhibitor), on the proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and on the hemodynamics and pulmonary vascular remodeling in experimental pulmonary hypertension, and determined the expression and regulation of Src family kinases. Human PASMCs were stimulated by PDGF alone or multiple growth factors to induce proliferation and migration in vitro. Dasatinib (0.03 μmol/L), nilotinib (0.3 μmol/L), and imatinib (1 μmol/L) potently inhibited PDGF-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and Akt phosphorylation. All 3 inhibitors decreased PDGF-induced proliferation, cell cycle gene regulation, and migration. In contrast, only dasatinib inhibited multiple growth factor-induced PASMC proliferation, and this was associated with the inhibition of Src phosphorylation. Combination of specific Src inhibitors (phosphoprotein phosphatase 1, phosphoprotein phosphatase 2) with either imatinib or nilotinib reduced multiple growth factor-induced proliferation to a similar extent as dasatinib. Importantly, Src phosphorylation increased in pulmonary arterial hypertension PASMCs compared with control PASMCs. Finally, in vivo dasatinib (15 mg/kg per body weight) treatment caused a complete reversal of pulmonary vascular remodeling and achieved similar effectiveness as imatinib (100 mg/kg per body weight) in both monocrotaline- and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension models. We suggest that dual inhibition of PDGF receptor and Src kinases potently inhibits mitogenic and motogenic responses to growth factors in PASMCs and pulmonary vascular remodeling in vivo so that dual inhibition may represent an alternative therapeutic approach for pulmonary arterial hypertension.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2012; 32(6):1354-65. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    Pulmonary circulation. 04/2012; 2(2):137-8.
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    Pulmonary circulation. 01/2012; 2(1):1-2.
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    Pulmonary circulation. 10/2011; 1(4):435-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension worldwide. A potential contributing mechanism to the pathogenesis of this disease is a localized immune reaction to retained and persistent parasite-derived antigens. We sought to identify Schistosoma-derived egg antigens present in the lungs of individuals who died of the disease. We obtained 18 lung samples collected at autopsy from individuals who died of schistosomiasis-associated PAH in Brazil. A rabbit polyclonal antibody was created to known Schistosoma mansoni-soluble egg antigen (SEA). Histologic assessment and immunostaining of the human tissue was performed, along with immunostaining and immunoblotting of lung tissue from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni. All 18 lung samples had evidence of pulmonary vascular remodeling with plexiform lesions and arterial medial thickening, but no visible eggs were seen. The anti-SEA antibody detected S. mansoni egg antigens in visible eggs in mouse lung and human intestine specimens, but did not identify a significant amount of egg antigen in the human lung specimens. In mouse granulomas containing degraded eggs, we observed colocalization of egg antigens and macrophage lysosomes. In conclusion, there is unlikely to be a significant amount of persistent parasite-derived antigens within the lungs of individuals who die of schistosomiasis-associated PAH. This suggests that retained and persistent parasite proteins are not contributing to a localized immune response in the pathogenesis of this disease.
    Pulmonary circulation. 10/2011; 1(4):456-61.
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    Pulmonary circulation. 07/2011; 1(3):303-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis is the most common worldwide cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The anti-schistosome drug praziquantel has been shown to reverse the liver fibrosis associated with Schistosoma mansoni in mice. We sought to determine whether praziquantel reverses established pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in a mouse model of S. mansoni. Mice were infected percutaneously with S. mansoni. At 17 weeks after infection mice were either killed or received two doses of praziquantel or vehicle by oral gavage. Treated mice were studied at 25 weeks after infection. Vehicle-treated mice demonstrated significant increases in right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) at 25 weeks, accompanied by pulmonary vascular remodeling. The degree of vascular remodeling correlated with proximity to granulomas. The elevation of RVSP and RVH at 25 weeks was dependent on the presence of eggs in the lung. Praziquantel eliminated the production of eggs in feces and led to clearance of eggs from the lung and to a lesser extent from liver. Praziquantel prevented the rise in RVSP and RVH seen in vehicle-treated mice and reversed established pulmonary vascular remodeling. Praziquantel significantly reduced lung mRNA expression of IL-13, IL-8, and IL-4, but did not reduce serum cytokine levels. The development of pulmonary hypertension associated with S. mansoni infection can be prevented by praziquantel, and established vascular remodeling can be reversed. The mechanism involves clearance of lung eggs and reduced local expression of lung cytokines.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2011; 184(4):467-73. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    Pulmonary circulation. 04/2011; 1(2):133.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent clinical data suggest statins have transient but significant effects in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study we explored the molecular effects of statins on distal human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and their relevance to proliferation and apoptosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Primary distal human PASMCs from patients and controls were treated with lipophilic (simvastatin, atorvastatin, mevastatin and fluvastatin), lipophobic (pravastatin) and nitric-oxide releasing statins and studied in terms of their DNA synthesis, proliferation, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and endothelin-1 release. Treatment of human PASMCs with selected statins inhibited DNA synthesis, proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Statins differed in their effectiveness, the rank order of anti-mitogenic potency being simvastatin > atorvastatin > > pravastatin. Nevertheless, a novel nitric oxide-releasing derivative of pravastatin (NCX 6550) was effective. Lipophilic statins, such as simvastatin, also enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of iloprost and sildenafil, promoted apoptosis and inhibited the release of the mitogen and survival factor endothelin-1. These effects were reversed by mevalonate and the isoprenoid intermediate geranylgeranylpyrophosphate and were mimicked by inhibitors of the Rho and Rho-kinase. Lipophilic statins exert direct effects on distal human PASMCs and are likely to involve inhibition of Rho GTPase signalling. These findings compliment some of the recently documented effects in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.
    Respiratory research 01/2011; 12:137. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    Pulmonary circulation. 01/2011; 1(1):1-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Parasitic diseases have been known to cause pulmonary vascular lesions. Schistosomiasis is the most common parasitic disease associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, although other trematodes have been implicated. Systematic evaluation of and interest in this problem have been rekindled because of the current availability of pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2011; 17(1):15-24. · 4.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

370 Citations
148.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2014
    • University of Kent
      • Kent Institute of Medicine and Health Sciences
      Cantorbery, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Gießen, Hesse, Germany