ABSTRACT: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) are considered first-line treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, little is known about their modulatory effects on regional brain morphology in OCD patients. We sought to document structural brain abnormalities in treatment-naive OCD patients and to determine the effects of pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments on regional brain volumes. Treatment-naive patients with OCD (n=38) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after a 12-week randomized clinical trial with either fluoxetine or group CBT. Matched-healthy controls (n=36) were also scanned at baseline. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare regional gray matter (GM) volumes of regions of interest (ROIs) placed in the orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and temporolimbic cortices, striatum, and thalamus. Treatment-naive OCD patients presented smaller GM volume in the left putamen, bilateral medial orbitofrontal, and left anterior cingulate cortices than did controls (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). After treatment with either fluoxetine or CBT (n=26), GM volume abnormalities in the left putamen were no longer detectable relative to controls. ROI-based within-group comparisons revealed that GM volume in the left putamen significantly increased (p<0.012) in fluoxetine-treated patients (n=13), whereas no significant GM volume changes were observed in CBT-treated patients (n=13). This study supports the involvement of orbitofronto/cingulo-striatal loops in the pathophysiology of OCD and suggests that fluoxetine and CBT may have distinct neurobiological mechanisms of action.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 02/2012; 37(3):734-45. · 6.99 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe a protocol that was based on an integrative neurobiological model of scientific investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder and to present the clinical and demographic characteristics of the sample.
A standardized research protocol that combines different methods of investigation (genetics, neuropsychology, morphometric magnetic resonance imaging and molecular neuroimaging of the dopamine transporter) obtained before and after treatment of drug-naïve adult obsessive-compulsive disorder patients submitted to a sequentially allocated 12-week clinical trial with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) and group cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Fifty-two treatment-naïve obsessive-compulsive disorder patients entered the clinical trial (27 received fluoxetine and 25 received group cognitive-behavioral therapy). At baseline, 47 blood samples for genetic studies, 50 neuropsychological evaluations, 50 morphometrical magnetic resonance images and 48 TRODAT-1 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) exams were obtained. After 12 weeks, 38 patients completed the protocol (fluoxetine = 20 and GCBT = 18). Thirty-eight neuropsychological evaluations, 31 morphometrical magnetic resonance images and 34 TRODAT-1 SPECT exams were obtained post-treatment. Forty-one healthy controls matched for age, gender, socioeconomic status, level of education and laterality were submitted to the same research procedures at baseline.
The comprehensive treatment response protocol applied in this project allowing integration on genetic, neuropsychological, morphometrical and molecular imaging of the dopamine transporter data in drug-naïve patients has the potential to generate important original information on the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and at the same time be clinically meaningful.
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 12/2009; 31(4):349-53. · 1.20 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: In view of conflicting neuroimaging results regarding autonomic-specific activity within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), we investigated autonomic responses to direct brain stimulation during stereotactic limbic surgery.
Skin conductance activity and accelerative heart rate responses to multi-voltage stimulation of the ACC (n = 7) and paralimbic subcaudate (n = 5) regions were recorded during bilateral anterior cingulotomy and bilateral subcaudate tractotomy (in patients that had previously received an adequate lesion in the ACC), respectively.
Stimulations in both groups were accompanied by increased autonomic arousal. Skin conductance activity was significantly increased during ACC stimulations compared with paralimbic targets at 2 V (2.34 +/- .68 [score in microSiemens +/- SE] vs. .34 +/- .09, p = .013) and 3 V (3.52 +/- .86 vs. 1.12 +/- .37, p = .036), exhibiting a strong "voltage-response" relationship between stimulus magnitude and response amplitude (difference from 1 to 3 V = 1.15 +/- .90 vs. 3.52 +/- .86, p = .041). Heart rate response was less indicative of between-group differences.
This is the first study of its kind aiming at seeking novel insights into the mechanisms responsible for central autonomic modulation. It supports a concept that interregional interactions account for the coordination of autonomic arousal.
Biological psychiatry 07/2009; 66(7):695-701. · 8.93 Impact Factor