Armen Kasyan

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (4)20.36 Total impact

  • Zhuang Zuo · Jacek M Polski · Armen Kasyan · L Jeffrey Medeiros ·
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    ABSTRACT: Acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) is an uncommon type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), representing less than 5% of all cases. Acute erythroid leukemia is characterized by a predominant erythroid proliferation, and in the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification scheme there are 2 subtypes: erythroleukemia (erythroid/myeloid leukemia) and pure erythroid leukemia. Morphologic findings are most important for establishing the diagnosis. The erythroleukemia subtype, which is most common, is defined as the presence of 50% or more erythroid precursors and 20% or more blasts in the nonerythroid component. The pure erythroid leukemia subtype is composed of 80% or more immature erythroblasts. Although these morphologic criteria appear straightforward, AEL overlaps with other types of AML and myelodysplastic syndrome that are erythroid rich. To provide an update of AEL, including clinical presentation, morphologic features, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic and molecular data. As the erythroleukemia subtype is most common, the literature and this review are biased towards this subtype of AEL. Clinicopathologic, cytogenetic, and molecular information were extracted from our review of pertinent literature and a subset of AEL cases in the files of The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston) and University of South Alabama (Mobile). The current WHO criteria for establishing the diagnosis of AEL reduce the frequency of this entity, as cases once classified as the erythroleukemia subtype are now reclassified as other types of AML, particularly AML with myelodysplasia-related changes and therapy-related AML. This reclassification also may have prognostic significance for patients with the erythroleukemia subtype of AEL. In contrast, the current WHO criteria appear to have little impact on the frequency and poor prognosis of patients with the pure erythroid leukemia subtype of AEL. Molecular studies, preferably using high-throughput methods, are needed for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of AEL, and for developing diagnostic and prognostic markers.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 09/2010; 134(9):1261-70. DOI:10.1043/2009-0350-RA.1 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic criteria for acute erythroid leukemia have been controversial since this disease was initially described. Using the current World Health Organization classification criteria, we retrospectively reviewed cases of acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome in which erythroid precursors were >or=50% of the bone marrow nucleated cell population and the diagnosis of erythroleukemia was considered using older classification schemes. We collected 90 cases and separated them into four diagnostic groups: acute erythroid leukemia, erythroleukemia or erythroid/myeloid type (n=20); acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (n=22); therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (n=32); and refractory anemia with excess blasts and preceding or concurrent history of erythropoietin therapy for anemia (n=16). Patients with acute erythroid leukemia were the youngest patient group and had the best overall survival. There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival between patients with acute erythroid leukemia versus acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (P=0.003) and between patients with acute erythroid leukemia versus therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (P<0.0001). The presence of complex cytogenetic abnormalities (>3) was the only statistically significant independent variable that adversely affected survival in the acute erythroid leukemia group. Monosomy 5/del(5q) and monosomy 7/del(7q) were overrepresented in the context of complex chromosomal abnormalities. Our data suggest that acute erythroid leukemia, as currently defined in the World Health Organization classification, has become a rare disease. A majority of the cases reported previously as erythroleukemia are now classified as other entities. In addition, our data suggest that the current definition of acute erythroid leukemia, erythroleukemia type remains heterogeneous. One subset of acute erythroid leukemia patients has relatively low blast counts and are diploid. The prognosis of this patient subset is relatively good. The other subset has cytogenetic abnormalities similar to those in myelodysplastic syndromes and a poor prognosis.
    Modern Pathology 08/2010; 23(8):1113-26. DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2010.96 · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) is a rare type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for which diagnostic criteria have been refined in the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of AML. The relationship of AEL to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and to AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) is not clearly defined. We conducted a retrospective, multi-institutional study of patients with AEL and compared them with patients with MDS or AML-MRC with erythroid hyperplasia (> or = 50% erythroid cells). Among a total of 124 patients with AEL, 32% had a history of MDS or chronic cytopenia, 32% had therapy-related disease, and 35% had de novo disease. Sixty-four percent of patients had unfavorable AML risk-group karyotypes. FLT3 and RAS mutations were infrequent, occurring in 6% and 2%, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) of all AEL patients was 8 months, comparable with that of patients with MDS or AML-MRC with erythroid hyperplasia. The OS was related to cytogenetic risk group, but not blast count or morphologic dysplasia. Our findings suggest that AEL is in the continuum of MDS and AML with erythroid hyperplasia, where karyotype rather than an arbitrary blast cutoff represents the most important prognostic factor.
    Blood 03/2010; 115(10):1985-92. DOI:10.1182/blood-2009-09-243964 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Benign lymphoid hyperplasia is a disorder characterized by polyclonal lymphocytic infiltration of orbital tissues, predominantly with B-cells. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, a B-cell marker. Two patients with recurrent orbital masses involving the lacrimal glands were treated with rituximab. The diagnosis of benign lymphoid hyperplasia with predominance of CD20 cells was confirmed in both cases based on a surgical biopsy. Both patients had been previously treated with standard therapies, including high-dose steroids, and one patient had failed external-beam radiation therapy. They both responded well to treatment with intravenous rituximab. Neither patient experienced any side effects associated with rituximab.
    Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery 01/2010; 26(1):11-3. DOI:10.1097/IOP.0b013e3181b8e056 · 0.88 Impact Factor