Mónica Acevedo

Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Region Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile

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Publications (75)100.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an inflammatory biomarker involved in atherosclerosis and directly associated with cardiovascular events. Aim: To determine Lp-PLA2 levels in asymptomatic subjects with differing cardiovascular risk. Material and Methods: We studied 152 subjects aged 46 ± 11 years (69 women). We recorded traditional cardiovascular risk factors, creatinine, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, fasting lipids, blood sugar and activity levels of Lp-PLA2. Cardiovascular risk was classified according to the number of risk factors of each subject (0,1-2 or ≥ 3 risk factors). Besides, we calculated global Framingham risk score. Results: The average Framingham score of participants was 6%. Twenty percent of participants had no risk factors, 46% had 1 or 2 and 34% had ≥ 3. Mean Lp-PLA2 levels were 185 ± 48 nmol/ml/min (201 ± 49 in men and 166 ± 38 in women). Lp-PLA2 correlated significantly (p < 0,05 for all) with non-HDL cholesterol, LDL, HDL, creatinine, waist circumference, body mass index and Framingham risk score. There was no correlation with blood sugar, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen or smoking status. Lp-PLA2 levels were significantly higher according to the number of risk factors: 0 factors: 163 ± 43, 1-2 factors: 185 ± 45 and ≥ 3 factors: 201 ± 47 nmol/ml/min, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed that the best predictor of Lp-PLA2 was non-HDL cholesterol (β = 0,74; p < 0,0001). Conclusions: Lp-PLA2 activity increased along with the number of cardiovascular risk factors and was correlated mainly with non -HDL cholesterol.
    Revista medica de Chile 11/2013; 141(11):1382-8. · 0.36 Impact Factor
  • Revista medica de Chile 11/2013; 141(11):1382-1388. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise and cardiac rehabilitation are indications with type I A evidence in most secondary cardiovascular prevention guidelines. Rehabilitation programs not only include exercise but also provide integral care and education about cardiovascular risk factors. However there is a paucity of such programs in Chile. Moreover there is a lack of awareness about the benefits of exercise and there is lack of knowledge about the details of exercise prescription in secondary prevention. Therefore, the divulgation of this knowledge is of utmost importance.
    Revista medica de Chile 10/2013; 141(10):1307-14. · 0.36 Impact Factor
  • Revista medica de Chile 10/2013; 141(10):1307-1314. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    Revista medica de Chile 08/2013; 141(8):1026-1033. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recognizing cardiovascular risk in overweight adults is challenging, as they usually have a low Framingham risk score (FRAM). In these subjects, non-traditional biomarkers could improve risk stratification. Aim: To assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP) among overweight and obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Subjects and Methods: In 1558 asymptomatic participants (816 women, 45 ± 11 years) we measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile, blood glucose, FRAM, usCRP and CIMT. For analytical purposes, we divided the subjects in three groups according to BMI and number of ATPIII-MetSyn risk factors (RF): 1) BMI < 25 and < 3RF, 2) BMI ≥ 25 and < 3RF and 3) BMI ≥ 25 and ≥ 3RF. Results: Participants of group 2 (BMI ≥ 25 and < 3RF) had a low FRAM (8%). Compared with participants of group 1, they had a higher CIMT (0.61 ± 0.1 and 0.57 ± 0.09 mm, respectively, p < 0.01) and usCRP (2.1 ± 2.1 and 1.5 ± 1.9 mg/L respectively, p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study shows that although subjects with overweight/obesity without MetSyn have low cardiovascular risk based on FRAM, they have higher CIMT and usCRP than their normal weight counterparts.
    Revista medica de Chile 08/2013; 141(8):1026-33. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a strong risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). There is scarce information regarding lipoprotein levels among patients with MI in Latin America as well as about the association of very early statin therapy during the course of acute MI. HYPOTHESIS: Very early statin prescription might be associated with a reduction on in-hospital mortality in MI patients with nearly normal lipid levels. METHODS: Prospective registry database analysis of MI patients admitted between 2001 and 2007 at a single university hospital from which demographics, treatments, clinical variables, and mortality were assessed. Patients naïve to statin therapy were divided in 2 groups, according to whether they received (group A) or did not receive (group B) statins during the first 24 hours after admission. RESULTS: In the 1465 patients analyzed, mean plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were 197, 117, and 44 mg/dL, respectively, and 41.8% had HDL-C ≤40 mg/dL. Among statin naïve patients (n = 1272), 67% were classified in group A and 33% in group B. Overall in-hospital mortality was 4.1%: 1.8% in group A and 8.5% in group B. In the multivariate analysis, including propensity score for statin prescription, the odds ratio for in-hospital mortality for group A was 0.971 (95% confidence interval: 0.944-0.999, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In the Chilean registry of MI patients, low HDL-C was the main lipid disturbance. Very early statin use after MI appears to be associated with a borderline significant and independent reduction of in-hospital mortality.
    Clinical Cardiology 03/2013; · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    Rodrigo Tagle V, Mónica Acevedo, Gloria Valdés
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    ABSTRACT: The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages. (Rev Med Chile 2013; 141:237-247).
    Revista medica de Chile 02/2013; 141(2):237-247. · 0.36 Impact Factor
  • Rodrigo Tagle V, Mónica Acevedo, Gloria Valdés
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    ABSTRACT: The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.
    Revista medica de Chile 02/2013; 141(2):237-47. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    Revista medica de Chile 08/2012; 140(8):969-976. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: LDL, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, are the most commonly used lipid cardiovascular risk predictor indicators. However population based studies have shown that non-HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratio are better predictors, are easy to measure and do not require fasting. Aim: To determine which lipid indicators are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by intima media thickness (IMT) among subjects without demonstrated atherosclerosis. Material and Methods: Lipid profile, height, weight, blood pressure and bilateral IMT, measured by ultrasound with automatic border recognition software, were assessed in 770 men and 854 women aged 45 ± 11 years, in Santiago de Chile. Results: Mean total cholesterol was 202, HDL 50, LDL 121, triglycerides 157 and non-HDL cholesterol 152 mg/dl. Total/HDL cholesterol ratio was 4.3. MeanIMTwas 0.62 mm. All lipid markers were significantly correlated with IMT. This correlation was higher for non-HDL cholesterol (r = 0.24, p < 0.0001) and total/HDL cholesterol ratio(r = 0.23, p < 0.0001). In both men and women, total/HDL cholesterol ratio was the best predictor of having an IMT over the 75th percentile (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence intervals 1.09-1.35, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Total/HDL cholesterol ratio was the best determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis.
    Revista medica de Chile 08/2012; 140(8):969-76. · 0.36 Impact Factor
  • Rodrigo Tagle, Fernando González, Mónica Acevedo
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
    Revista medica de Chile 06/2012; 140(6):797-805. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    Rodrigo Tagle, Fernando González, Mónica Acevedo
    Revista medica de Chile 06/2012; 140(6):797-805. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Health promotion can be carried out at work places. Aim: To assess cardiovascular risk factors among workers of a University hospital. Material and Methods: Cross sectional study of 888 participants (aged 41 ± 11 years, 76% women), who answered a survey about cardiovascular risk factors. Body mass index, waist, blood pressure and total cholesterol (TC) by capillary method were determined. Results: Self reported prevalence of risk factors were as follows: 19% of participants had high blood pressure, 30% hypercholesterolemia, 6% diabetes, 41% smoked, 88% were sedentary and 26% had a family history of cardiovascular diseases. Five percent of participants did not have any risk factor, 20% had one risk factor, 32% had two and 43% had three or more. The highest frequency of lack of awareness was about blood glucose values. A high blood cholesterol level was found in 27% of those reporting normal cholesterol levels. Likewise, a high body mass index was found in 18% of those reporting a normal weight. Conclusions: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this group of participants is similar to that found in the last national health survey in Chile. Noteworthy is the lack of awareness about these risk factors.
    Revista medica de Chile 05/2012; 140(5):601-8. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    Revista medica de Chile 05/2012; 140(5):601-608. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) is increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and it might predict the lack of sinus rhythm maintenance in the long term follow-up. Scarce data have been reported relating endothelial dysfunction and/or haemostatic or platelet markers to sinus rhythm maintenance in AF patients. We aimed to determine whether some biochemical markers including soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), soluble P-selectin, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex and CRP levels could predict sinus rhythm maintenance at 1 year follow-up in non-valvular AF patients. 130 patients (70 males, mean age 67 ± 13 years) with newly diagnosed AF naïve of antithrombotic or antiplatelet therapy were studied. Baseline CRP, P-selectin, sTM and TAT levels were compared to those of 20 matched-healthy subjects in sinus rhythm. AF patients had significantly higher plasma CRP (10.5 ± 2.2 vs 3.25 ± 0.3 mg/l, p = 0.001), P-selectin (219 ± 141 vs 126 ng/ml, p = 0.01), and TAT (54 ± 237 vs 2.7 ± 3.3 ng/l, p = 0.001) levels compared with controls. Soluble TM levels, although higher than controls, did not reach statistical significance. Multivariate regression analyses showed that elevated CRP (OR = 4.8, p = 0.02) and sTM (OR = 1.05, p = 0.04) were the only two predictors of lack of sinus rhythm at 1 year follow-up. An altered inflammatory, haemostatic, endothelial and platelet environment exists in newly diagnosed AF patients. CRP and sTM levels might be used as biochemical markers to predict the status of cardiac rhythm at 1 year follow-up in some AF patients.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 02/2012; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular risk factor (RF) assessment is essential to prevent and predict cardiovascular disease. The presence of RF at early ages, are determinant for the presence of atherosclerosis later in life. To determine the RF profile of young subjects with high carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). We studied 689 subjects (50% women, mean age 36±6 years) from Santiago, Chile. We determined body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein. CIMT was assessed by ultrasound using an automatic border recognition software. Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and serum lipids were significantly higher among subjects located in the higher CIMT quartile. Also, subjects in the higher quartile of CIMT had a higher prevalence of three or more RF compared with the lower quartile (p = 0.01). Finally, individuals with three or more RF showed three times more risk of being in the higher CIMT quartile, than subjects with no RF (odds ratio = 3.1, p < 0.01). There is a negative influence of cardiovascular RF on CIMT among young subjects.
    Revista medica de Chile 10/2011; 139(10):1322-9. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    Revista medica de Chile 10/2011; 139(10):1322-1329. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) is a marker of cardiovascular damage that can be modified by traditional risk factors. To determine attributable risk factors for a high CIMT among healthy adults. A sample of 1270 individuals (636 males and 634 females) aged 44 ± 11 years, was studied. Blood pressure, weight, height, lipid profile and blood glucose were measured in all. CIMT and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques were determined by carotid ultrasound. Standard criteria were used to define hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Mean CIMT in the sample studied was 0.62 ± 0.01 mm and percentile 75 was 0.67. The most important risk factor for a CIMT over percentile 75 and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques was hypertension with attributable risks of 54 and 57%, respectively. In this sample, the main risk factor for a high CIMT was hypertension.
    Revista medica de Chile 03/2011; 139(3):290-7. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    Revista medica de Chile 03/2011; 139(3):290-297. · 0.36 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

347 Citations
100.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2012
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      • • División Enfermedades Cardiovasculares
      • • Facultad de Medicina
      • • División Pediatría
      Santiago, Region Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile
  • 2007–2008
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2001
    • Cleveland Clinic
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States