[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The attachment of sugar to flavonoids enhances their solubility. Glycosylation is performed primarily by uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs). The UGT from Bacillus cereus, BcGT-1 transferred three glucose molecules into kaempferol. The structural analysis of BcGT-1 showed that its substrate binding site is wider than that of flavonoid monoglucosyltransferase of plant. In order to create monoglucosyltransferase from BcGT-1, error-prone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. We analyzed 150 clones. Among them, two mutants generated only kaempferol O-monoglucoside, albeit with reduced reactivity. Unexpectedly, the two mutants harbored mutations in the amino acids located outside of the active sites. Based on the modeled structure of BcGT-1, it was proposed that the local change in the secondary structure of BcGT-1 caused the alteration of triglucosyltransferase into monoglucosyltransferase.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2010; 20(10):1393-6. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An O-methyltransferase isolated from poplar, POMT7, was identified as a flavone 7-O-methyltransferase. In order to generate a mutant of POMT-7 having a novel regioselectivity, we conducted an error-prone polymerase chain reaction. More than 100 mutants were screened and one of the mutants (POMT-M1) Asp257Gly, methylated the 3-hydroxyl group of flavonols in addition to 7-hydrdoxyl group. The mutation changed asparagine residue at the position of 257 into glycine. The kinetic parameters showed that the wild type POMT7 was better activity toward kaempferol and quercetin than the POMT7-M1. Using E. coli transformant expressing POMT7-M1, 58 microM of 3, 7-O-dimethylquercetin and 70 microM of 3, 7-O-dimethylkaempferol from 100 microM of corresponding substrate were synthesized successfully.
Molecules and Cells 08/2010; 30(2):137-41. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biosynthesis of flavonoid derivatives requires enzyme(s) having high reactivity as well as regioselectivity. We have synthesized 3-O-kaempferol from naringenin using two enzymes. The first reaction, in which naringenin is converted to kaempferol, is mediated by flavonol synthase (FLS). An FLS (PFLS) with strong catalytic activity was cloned and characterized from the genome sequence of the poplar (Populus deltoides). PFLS consists of a 1,008 bp ORF encoding a 38 kDa protein. PFLS was expressed in Escherichia coli with a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) tagging. The purified recombinant PFLS was characterized. Catalytically, it was more efficient than the previously characterized FLSs. A mixture of two E. coli transformants harboring either PFLS or ROMT9 (a kaempferol 3-O-methyltransferase) converted naringenin into 3-O-methylkaempferol.