Ludwin E. Molina

University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States

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Publications (15)24.36 Total impact

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    Sahana Mukherjee, Phia S. Salter, Ludwin E. Molina
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    ABSTRACT: The present research draws upon a cultural psychological perspective to consider how psychological phenomena are grounded in socio-cultural contexts. Specifically, we examine the association between representations of history at Ellis Island Immigration Museum and identity-relevant concerns. Pilot study participants (N = 13) took a total of 114 photographs of exhibits that they considered as most important in the museum. Results indicate that a majority of the photographs reflected neutral themes (n = 81), followed by nation-glorifying images (n = 24), and then critical themes that highlight injustices and barriers faced by immigrants (n = 9). Study 1 examines whether there is a preference for glorifying images, and if that preference is related to cultural-assimilationist conceptions of national identity (i.e., defining American identity in dominant group standards). We exposed a new sample of participants (N = 119) to photographs reflecting all three themes. Results indicate that participants expressed greater liking for glorifying images, followed by neutral images, and critical images. National identity moderated within-subject variation in liking scores. Study 2 included 35 visitors who completed a survey before engaging with the museum or after their visit. Results indicate that participants who had completed their visit, compared to participants who had not entered the museum, reported (i) higher endorsement of cultural-assimilationist identity, and (ii) increased support for exclusive immigration policies. Study 3 exposed participants (N = 257) to glorifying, critical, or neutral images. Results indicate that participants who were exposed to glorifying images, especially those endorsing cultural-assimilationist identity, demonstrate decreased perception of current-day racial injustice, and increased ethnocentric enforcement bias. We discuss how engagement with privileged narratives may serve dominant group ends and reproduce systems of privilege.
    Frontiers in Psychology 05/2015; 6(692). DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00692 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    Ludwin E Molina, Nia L Phillips, Jim Sidanius
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    ABSTRACT: Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination-via an item order manipulation-and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 09/2014; 21(2). DOI:10.1037/a0037880 · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Sahana Mukherjee, Ludwin E Molina, Glenn Adams
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    ABSTRACT: We examined whether support for tough immigration legislation reflects identity-neutral enforcement of law or identity-relevant defense of privilege. Participants read a fabricated news story in which law-enforcement personnel detained a person due to "reasonable suspicion" that he was an undocumented immigrant. We manipulated descriptions of the detainee so that he was either (a) an undocumented immigrant (both studies), (b) a documented immigrant (Study 1), or (c) a U.S. citizen (Study 2) of either Mexican or Canadian origin. Participants in both studies endorsed tougher punishment of an undocumented detainee and rated tough treatment as more fair when the detainee was of Mexican than Canadian origin (regardless of documentation status). Across both studies, the patterns of ethnocentric exclusion-harsher treatment toward Mexican immigrants than Canadian immigrants-were particularly pronounced among participants who defined American identity in terms of assimilation to Anglocentric cultural values (e.g., being able to speak English). Overall, results suggest that people may support tough measures to restrict immigration to defend against symbolic threats-especially threats that cultural "others" pose to Anglocentric understandings of American identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 07/2013; 19(3):320-31. DOI:10.1037/a0032944 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    Sahana Mukherjee, Ludwin E. Molina, Glenn Adams
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    ABSTRACT: Does support for tough policies against undocumented immigration reflect anti-immigrant sentiments or a neutral concern about upholding laws? This study addresses the question by examining the relationship between different expressions of national identification and ethnocentric enforcement bias—that is, support for punishment of law-breaking immigrants but not law-breaking American employers who knowingly hire undocumented immigrants. Results revealed an association of this enforcement bias with nationalism (an ethnocentric engagement with national identity) but not with patriotism (a more critical engagement with national identity). A moderation analysis indicated that the relationship between nationalism and ethnocentric enforcement bias was most evident among participants who endorsed a “culture”-based construction of American identity in terms of American citizenship and ability to speak English. Discussion focuses on policy developments that reflect a symbolic threat to culture-based constructions of American identity and on the implications for fair and just enforcement of immigration policy.
    Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 07/2011; 12(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2011.01257.x
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research points toward the utility of the pluralist (multicultural) model as a viable alternative to the traditional assimilation model of cultural integration. In this study, we extend this work by evaluating when and to what extent feelings that members of a common group respect and value one's ethnic group membership (subgroup respect) shape social engagement and well-being. We do so in the context of a survey of students at a diverse, public high school. Subgroup respect was linked to more positive evaluations of both school authorities and students from ethnic outgroups as well as to lower levels of school disengagement. Consistent with past research, these relationships held only among ethnic minority groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos) but not among Whites. Findings about the relationship between subgroup respect and indicators of well-being were more mixed, with the relationship most evident among Asians Americans and Latinos and especially on indicators of physical health. Implications for understanding the consequences of pluralism are discussed in light of the observed ethnic group differences.
    Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 07/2010; 16(3):427-36. DOI:10.1037/a0019886 · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Yuen J. Huo, Kevin R. Binning, Ludwin E. Molina
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – To present a new conceptual framework for understanding how perceptions of fairness shape the experience of respect in groups and its implications for individuals’ engagement in groups, their psychological well-being, and intergroup relations.Design/methodology/approach – Research on fairness perceptions and respect emerge from different theoretical traditions including theories of justice, social identity theory, and social context and health. We review this body of work and present the dual pathway model of respect, developed to integrate the different lines of research into a single testable framework. Research testing the model's predictions is presented.Findings – The dual pathway model posits that concerns about respect follow from the need for social inclusion and for status attainment. Fair treatment from group peers and authorities communicates the extent to which these needs are satisfied, and as such, perceptions of being liked (indicative of inclusion) and of being judged worthy (indicative of status attainment) independently and differentially predict social engagement and psychological well-being.Originality/value – The dual pathway model provides a framework for integrating and extending existing research on the experience of respect in groups. The model highlights how the inclusion and status dimensions of respect differentially shape outcomes relevant to group functioning: social engagement and psychological well-being. Insights from the model address a broad array of challenges faced by organizations, including building commitment, managing diversity, and promoting health and well-being among its members.
    Research on Managing Groups and Teams 06/2010; 13:95-120. DOI:10.1108/S1534-0856(2010)0000013007
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    ABSTRACT: Adopting an evolutionary approach to the psychology of race bias, we posit that intergroup conflict perpetrated by male aggressors throughout human evolutionary history has shaped the psychology of modern forms of intergroup bias and that this psychology reflects the unique adaptive problems that differ between men and women in coping with male aggressors from groups other than one's own. Here we report results across 4 studies consistent with this perspective, showing that race bias is moderated by gender differences in traits relevant to threat responses that differ in their adaptive utility between the sexes-namely, aggression and dominance motives for men and fear of sexual coercion for women. These results are consistent with the notion that the psychology of intergroup bias is generated by different psychological systems for men and women, and the results underscore the importance of considering the gender of the outgroup target as well as the gender of the agent in psychological studies on prejudice and discrimination.
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 06/2010; 98(6):933-45. DOI:10.1037/a0017931 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from the International Social Survey Programme, this research investigated asymmetric attitudes of ethnic minorities and majorities towards their country and explored the impact of human development, ethnic diversity, and social inequality as country-level moderators of national attitudes. In line with the general hypothesis of ethnic asymmetry, we found that ethnic, linguistic, and religious majorities were more identified with the nation and more strongly endorsed nationalist ideology than minorities (H1, 33 countries). Multilevel analyses revealed that this pattern of asymmetry was moderated by country-level characteristics: the difference between minorities and majorities was greatest in ethnically diverse countries and in egalitarian, low inequality contexts. We also observed a larger positive correlation between ethnic subgroup identification and both national identification and nationalism for majorities than for minorities (H2, 20 countries). A stronger overall relationship between ethnic and national identification was observed in countries with a low level of human development. The greatest minority-majority differences in the relationship between ethnic identification and national attitudes were found in egalitarian countries with a strong welfare state tradition.
    Political Psychology 04/2010; 31(4):491 - 519. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2010.00766.x · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    Yuen J Huo, Kevin R Binning, Ludwin E Molina
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    ABSTRACT: Prior research demonstrates that feelings of respect affect important aspects of group functioning and members' psychological well-being. One limitation is that respect has been variously defined as reflecting individuals' status in the group, degree to which they are liked by the group, and how fairly they are treated in interactions with group members. These different conceptions are integrated in the dual pathway model of respect. The authors tested the model's prediction that fair treatment from group members shapes attitudes toward the group and self via two distinct pathways: status and inclusion. Findings from a field study supported the model and yielded new insights: Whereas perceptions of status predicted social engagement, liking was more important in predicting well-being (especially among dominant subgroups). Discussion focuses on the utility of the dual pathway model for understanding how respect perceptions are formed and how they affect the welfare of groups and individuals.
    Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 02/2010; 36(2):200-12. DOI:10.1177/0146167209356787 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This research examines how multiracial individuals chose to identify themselves with respect to their racial identity and how this choice relates to their self-reported psychological well-being (e.g., self-esteem, positive affect) and level of social engagement (e.g., citizenship behaviors, group alienation). High school students who belong to multiple racial/ethnic groups (N = 182) were asked to indicate the group with which they primarily identify. Participants were then classified as identifying with a low-status group (i.e., Black or Latino), a high-status group (i.e., Asian or White), or multiple groups (e.g., Black and White, etc.). Results showed that, compared with multiracial individuals who identified primarily with a low- or high-status group, those who identified with multiple groups tended to report either equal or higher psychological well-being and social engagement. Potential explanations and implications for understanding multiracial identity are discussed.
    Journal of Social Issues 02/2009; 65(1):35 - 49. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2008.01586.x · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Ludwin E. Molina, Michele A. Wittig
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    ABSTRACT: Research on contact theory has typically presented four major situational conditions of intergroup contact as separate and equally important in creating an environment that leads to lower levels of racial/ethnic prejudice. We empirically test this “separate and equal” assumption with a variety of student samples and outcome variables. Using data from three cohorts of high school students, as well as one middle school sample, we demonstrate that acquaintance potential and interdependence are the most consistent and robust predictors of prejudice reduction, outgroup orientation, and perceptions of a common ingroup identity. Findings concerning differences in the relative importance of these situational conditions for different racial/ethnic groups are also reported. Implications for implementing optimal contact conditions for prejudice reduction among various ethnic groups are drawn.
    Journal of Social Issues 08/2006; 62(3):489 - 509. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00470.x · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    Yuen J. Huo, Ludwin E. Molina
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we focus on a key psychological principle underlying pluralism, subgroup respect, defined as feelings that one's subgroup is recognized, accepted, and valued by members of a common group (e.g. Americans' respect for various ethnic subgroups). Analyzing survey data collected from a large and diverse sample of respondents in two US cities (Oakland, California, and Los Angeles; N = 1,229), we found that subgroup respect was linked to more positive evaluations of America and its ethnic groups, but only among African Americans and Latinos. Among Whites, personal respect (i.e. how Americans feel about the individual) was a better predictor of the assessed attitudes (affect toward Americans, distrust of the justice system, and ingroup favoritism) than subgroup respect. Advocates of pluralism suggest that acknowledgment and regard for valued subgroup identities will have a unifying effect on the social system. The data here, while generally consistent with this perspective, suggests, however, that the unifying influence of subgroup respect is limited to members of ethnic minority groups.
    Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 01/2006; 9(3):359-376. DOI:10.1177/1368430206064639 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Past research suggests that reactions to an authority's decision are most influenced by treatment quality when individuals value their relationship with the authority and the group s/he represents. The present experiments examine how institutional recognition of self-relevant identities (implicit in Study 1 and explicit in Study 2) affects the relationship between treatment quality and reactions to the delivery of a negative outcome by an outgroup authority. The overall pattern of results suggests that treatment quality affects reactions to the decision only when the common identity shared with the authority and a subgroup identity that distinguishes one from the authority are both recognized. Possible mechanisms for the observed effect are discussed along with implications for the dual identity approach to conflict resolution. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    European Journal of Social Psychology 03/2005; 35(2):237 - 254. DOI:10.1002/ejsp.243 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Ludwin E. Molina, Michele A. Wittig, Michael T. Giang
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    ABSTRACT: Using Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's (1986) theorizing as a foundation, the present article applies acculturation constructs to the domain of intergroup bias and compares them to social categorization variables. The paper comprises three school-based studies that test the predictive and mediating roles of acculturation and social categorization, respectively. Results of Studies 1 and 2 with ethnically diverse classes of ninth graders support the hypothesis that outgroup orientation, a dimension of acculturation, mediates the interracial classroom climate-intergroup bias relationship, and independently boosts the prediction of bias. Although social categorization variables do not mediate this relationship reliably, as a group they predict bias. Study 3 replicates these findings in a different context with a largely European American class of seventh grade students.
    Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 01/2004; 7(3):239-265. DOI:10.1177/1368430204046110 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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