[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zinc metallopeptidases of bacterial pathogens are widely dis-tributed virulence factors and represent promising pharma-cological targets. In this work, we have characterized Zmp1, a zinc metallopeptidase identifi ed as a virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and belonging to the neprilysin (NEP; M13) family, whose X-ray structure has been recently solved. Interestingly, this enzyme shows an optimum activity toward a fl uorogenic substrate at moderately acidic pH values (i.e., 6.3), which corresponds to those reported for the Mtb phagosome where this enzyme should exert its pathological activity. Substrate specifi city of Zmp1 was investigated by screening a peptide library. Several sequences derived from biologically relevant proteins were identifi ed as possible substrates, including the neuropeptides bradykinin, neuro-tensin, and neuropeptide FF. Further, subsequences of other small bioactive peptides were found among most frequently cleaved sites, e.g., apelin-13 and substance P. We determined the specifi c cleavage site within neuropeptides by mass spec-trometry, observing that hydrophobic amino acids, mainly phenylalanine and isoleucine, are overrepresented at position P1 ′ . In addition, the enzymatic mechanism of Zmp1 toward these neuropeptides has been characterized, displaying some differences with respect to the synthetic fl uorogenic substrate and indicating that the enzyme adapts its enzymatic action to different substrates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, parasitizes host macrophages. The resistance of the tubercle bacilli to the macrophage hostile environment relates to their ability to impair phagosome maturation and its fusion with the lysosome, thus preventing the formation of the phago-lysosome and eventually arresting the process of phagocytosis. The M. tuberculosis zinc-dependent metalloprotease Zmp1 has been proposed to play a key role in the process of phagosome maturation inhibition and emerged as an important player in pathogenesis. Here, we report the crystal structure of wild-type Zmp1 at 2.6 Å resolution in complex with the generic zinc metalloprotease inhibitor phosphoramidon, which we demonstrated to inhibit the enzyme potently. Our data represent the first structural characterization of a bacterial member of the zinc-dependent M13 endopeptidase family and revealed a significant degree of conservation with eukaryotic enzymes. However, structural comparison of the Zmp1-phosphoramidon complex with homologous human proteins neprilysin and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 revealed unique features of the Zmp1 active site to be exploited for the rational design of specific inhibitors that may prove useful as a pharmacological tool for better understanding Zmp1 biological function.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(37):32475-82. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previously undescribed, rapid-growing, non-chromogenic Mycobacterium isolate from a goat lung lesion in Algeria is reported. Biochemical and molecular tools were used for its complete description and showed its affiliation to the Mycobacterium terrae complex. 16S rRNA, rpoB and hsp65 gene sequences were unique. Phylogenetic analyses showed a close relationship with M. terrae sensu stricto and Mycobacterium senuense. Culture and biochemical characteristics were generally similar to those of M. terrae and M. senuense. However, in contrast to M. terrae and M. senuense, the isolate was positive for urease production and had faster growth. The mycolic acid profile was distinct from those of M. terrae and M. senuense, thus further supporting the new taxonomic position of the isolate. We propose the name Mycobacterium algericum sp. nov. for this novel species. The type strain is TBE 500028/10(T) ( = Bejaia(T) = CIP 110121(T) = DSM 45454(T)).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 08/2011; 61(Pt 8):1870-4. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogenic mycobacteria escape host innate immune responses by blocking phagosome-lysosome fusion. Avoiding lysosomal delivery may also be involved in the capacity of mycobacteria to evade major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I- or II-dependent T-cell responses. In this study, we used a genetic mutant of Mycobacterium bovis BCG that is unable to escape lysosomal transfer and show that presentation of mycobacterial antigens is affected by the site of intracellular residence. Compared to infection with wild-type BCG, infection of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with a mycobacterial mutant deficient in zinc metalloprotease 1 (Zmp1) resulted in increased presentation of MHC class II-restricted antigens, as assessed by activation of mycobacterial Ag85A-specific T-cell hybridomas. The zmp1 deletion mutant was more immunogenic in vivo, as measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, and the frequency of antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing lymphocytes of both CD4 and CD8 subsets. In conclusion, our results suggest that phagosome maturation and lysosomal delivery of BCG facilitate mycobacterial antigen presentation and enhance immunogenicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human adenovirus serotype 35 (HAdV-35; here referred to as Ad35) causes kidney and urinary tract infections and infects respiratory organs of immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other adenoviruses, Ad35 has a low seroprevalence, which makes Ad35-based vectors promising candidates for gene therapy. Ad35 utilizes CD46 and integrins as receptors for infection of epithelial and hematopoietic cells. Here we show that infectious entry of Ad35 into HeLa cells, human kidney HK-2 cells, and normal human lung fibroblasts strongly depended on CD46 and integrins but not heparan sulfate and variably required the large GTPase dynamin. Ad35 infections were independent of expression of the carboxy-terminal domain of AP180, which effectively blocks clathrin-mediated uptake. Ad35 infections were inhibited by small chemicals against serine/threonine kinase Pak1 (p21-activated kinase), protein kinase C (PKC), sodium-proton exchangers, actin, and acidic organelles. Remarkably, the F-actin inhibitor jasplakinolide, the Pak1 inhibitor IPA-3, or the sodium-proton exchange inhibitor 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) blocked endocytic uptake of Ad35. Dominant-negative proteins or small interfering RNAs against factors driving macropinocytosis, including the small GTPase Rac1, Pak1, or the Pak1 effector C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), potently inhibited Ad35 infection. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, electron microscopy, and live cell imaging showed that Ad35 colocalized with fluid-phase markers in large endocytic structures that were positive for CD46, alphanu integrins, and also CtBP1. Our results extend earlier observations with HAdV-3 (Ad3) and establish macropinocytosis as an infectious pathway for species B human adenoviruses in epithelial and hematopoietic cells.
Journal of Virology 03/2010; 84(10):5336-50. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteasome-bearing bacteria make use of a ubiquitin-like modification pathway to target proteins for proteasomal turnover. In a process termed pupylation, proteasomal substrates are covalently modified with the small protein Pup that serves as a degradation signal. Pup is attached to substrate proteins by action of PafA. Prior to its attachment, Pup needs to undergo deamidation at its C-terminal residue, converting glutamine to glutamate. This step is catalysed in vitro by Dop. In order to characterize Dop activity in vivo, we generated a dop deletion mutant in Mycobacterium smegmatis. In the Deltadop strain, pupylation is severely impaired and the steady-state levels of two known proteasomal substrates are drastically increased. Pupylation can be re-established by complementing the mutant with either DopWt or a Pup variant carrying a glutamate at its ultimate C-terminal position (PupGGE). Our data show that Pup is deamidated by Dop in vivo and that likely Dop alone is responsible for this activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a putative N-terminal ATP-binding motif is crucial for catalysis, as a single point mutation (E10A) in this motif abolishes Dop activity both in vivo and in vitro.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a major gate for pathogens into cells. In this study, we analyzed the trafficking of human adenovirus type 2 and 5 (Ad2/5) and the escape-defective temperature-sensitive Ad2-ts1 mutant in epithelial cancer cells. Ad2/5 and Ad2-ts1 uptake into endosomes containing transferrin, major histocompatibility antigen 1 and the Rab5 effector early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) involved dynamin, amphiphysin, clathrin and Eps15. Cointernalization experiments showed that most of the Ad2/5 and Ad2-ts1 visited the same EEA1-positive endosomes. In contrast to Ad2/5, Ad2-ts1 required functional Rab5 for endocytosis and lysosomal transport and was sensitive to the phosphatidyl-inositol-3 (PI3)-kinase inhibitor wortmannin or the ubiquitin-binding protein Hrs for sorting from early to late endosomes. Endosomal escape of Ad2 was not affected by incubation at 19 degrees C, which blocked membrane sorting in early endosomes and inhibited Ad2-ts1 transport to lysosomes. Unlike Semliki Forest Virus (SFV), sorting of Ad2-ts1 to late endosomes was independent of Rab7 and Ad2/5 infection independent of EEA1. The data indicate that Ad2/5 and Ad2-ts1 use an invariant machinery for clathrin-mediated uptake to early endosomes. We suggest that the infectious Ad2 particles are either directly released from early endosomes to the cytosol or sorted by a temperature-insensitive and PI3-kinase-independent mechanism to an escape compartment different from late endosomes or lysosomes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocytosis supports cell communication, growth, and pathogen infection. The species B human adenovirus serotype 3 (Ad3) is associated with epidemic conjunctivitis, and fatal respiratory and systemic disease. Here we show that Ad3 uses dynamin-independent endocytosis for rapid infectious entry into epithelial and haematopoietic cells. Unlike Ad5, which uses dynamin-dependent endocytosis, Ad3 endocytosis spatially and temporally coincided with enhanced fluid-phase uptake. It was sensitive to macropinocytosis inhibitors targeting F-actin, protein kinase C, the sodium-proton exchanger, and Rac1 but not Cdc42. Infectious Ad3 macropinocytosis required viral activation of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and the C-terminal binding protein 1 of E1A (CtBP1), recruited to macropinosomes. These macropinosomes also contained the Ad3 receptors CD46 and alpha v integrins. CtBP1 is a phosphorylation target of PAK1, and is bifunctionally involved in membrane traffic and transcriptional repression of cell cycle, cancer, and innate immunity pathways. Phosphorylation-defective S147A-CtBP1 blocked Ad3 but not Ad5 infection, providing a direct link between PAK1 and CtBP1. The data show that viruses induce macropinocytosis for infectious entry, a pathway used in antigen presentation and cell migration.
The EMBO Journal 05/2008; 27(7):956-69. · 9.82 Impact Factor