[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have highlighted the importance of an appropriate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) evaluation for the proper identification of patients eligible for treatment with anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Today, the relationship remains unclear between the level of HER2 amplification and the outcome of HER2-positive gastric cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with trastuzumab. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of HER2 gene amplification determined by the HER2/CEP17 ratio and HER2 gene copy number could significantly predict some benefit in overall survival and response to therapy in advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy.
Ninety patients with metastatic gastric cancer treated with first-line trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were studied. The optimal cutoff values for HER2/CEP17 ratio and HER2 gene copy number (GCN) for discriminating positive results in terms of response and prolonged survival were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves analyses.
In this study, a median HER2/CEP17 ratio of 6.11 (95% CI, 2.27 to 21.90) and a median HER2 gene copy number of 11.90 (95% CI, 3.30 to 43.80) were found. A mean HER2/CEP17 ratio of 4.7 was identified as the optimal cutoff value discriminating sensitive and refractory patients (P = .005). Similarly, the optimal cutoff for predicting survival longer than 12 months was 4.45 (P = .005), and for survival longer than 16 months was 5.15 (P = .004). For HER2 GCN, the optimal cutoff values were 9.4, 10.0, and 9.5, respectively (P = .02).
The level of HER2 gene amplification significantly predicts sensitivity to therapy and overall survival in advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has increased during the past decades in Spain, being the first malignant tumour in incidence. Observed mortality for CRC is mainly due to liver and lung metastases. The only curative treatment is surgery; new surgical techniques and neoadjuvant treatments have increased the number of surgery candidate patients. Patients should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach that includes imaging techniques, chemotherapy, surgery and pathological assessment. As an answer to this approach, a group of pathology experts interested on CRC liver metastases aimed to review the diagnosis and prognosis of liver mestastases and developed practical recommendations for its assessment. The expert group revised the current literature and prepared questions to be discussed based on available evidence and on their clinical practise. As a result, recommendations for the assessment of tumour regression of liver metastases are proposed, which could be implemented in oncology centres allowing assessment standardisation for these patients. Prospective multi-center studies to evaluate these recommendations validity will further contribute to improve the standard care of CRC liver metastases patients.
Clinical and Translational Oncology 09/2013; · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Angiogenesis plays an essential role in tumor growth and metastasis, and is a major target in cancer therapy. VEGFR and PDGFR are key players involved in this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of genetic variants in these receptors and its potential clinical implications in colorectal cancer (CRC).
VEGFR2, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ mutations were evaluated by sequencing their tyrosine kinase domains in 8 CRC cell lines and in 92 samples of patients with CRC. Correlations with clinicopathological features and survival were analyzed.
Four SNPs were identified, three in PDGFRα [exon 12 (A12): c.1701A>G; exon 13 (A13): c.1809G>A; and exon 17 (A17): c.2439+58C>A] and one in PDGFRβ [exon 19 (B19): c.2601A>G]. SNP B19, identified in 58% of tumor samples and in 4 cell lines (LS174T, LS180, SW48, COLO205), was associated with higher PDGFR and pPDGFR protein levels. Consistent with this observation, 5-year survival was greater for patients with PDGFR B19 wild type tumors (AA) than for those harboring the G-allele genotype (GA or GG) (51% vs 17%; p=0.073). Multivariate analysis confirmed SNP B19 (p=0.029) was a significant prognostic factor for survival, independent of age (p=0.060) or TNM stage (p<0.001).
PDGFRβ exon 19 c.2601A>G SNP is commonly encountered in CRC patients and is associated with increased pathway activation and poorer survival. Implications regarding its potential influence in response to PDGFR-targeted agents remain to be elucidated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine have demonstrated a survival benefit over gemcitabine alone in advanced pancreatic cancer (PDA). This study aimed to investigate the clinical, biological, and imaging effects of the regimen in patients with operable PDA.Methods:Patients with operable PDA received two cycles of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine before surgical resection. FDG-PET and CA19.9 tumour marker levels were used to measure clinical activity. Effects on tumour stroma were determined by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) elastography. The collagen content and architecture as well as density of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were determined in the resected surgical specimen and compared with a group of untreated and treated with conventional chemoradiation therapy controls. A co-clinical study in a mouse model of PDA was conducted to differentiate between the effects of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine.Results:A total of 16 patients were enrolled. Treatment resulted in significant antitumour effects with 50% of patients achieving a >75% decrease in circulating CA19.9 tumour marker and a response by FDG-PET. There was also a significant decrement in tumour stiffness as measured by EUS elastography. Seven of 12 patients who completed treatment and were operated had major pathological regressions. Analysis of residual tumours showed a marked disorganised collagen with a very low density of CAF, which was not observed in the untreated or conventionally treated control groups. The preclinical co-clinical study showed that these effects were specific of nab-paclitaxel and not gemcitabine.Conclusion:These data suggest that nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine decreases CAF content inducing a marked alteration in cancer stroma that results in tumour softening. This regimen should be studied in patients with operable PDA.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 1 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.415 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: —Introduction. Nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn (NS) is a hamartoma that affects the epidermis, ectopic eccrine and apocrine glands and hair follicles. It has typically been described as associated with multiple types of cutaneous neoplasms.
Material and methods
. We retrospectively analyzed all cases of nevus sebaceous from the files of the Pathology Department of the Hospital 12 de Octubre, from 1986 to 2001.
. Of the 366 cases studied, 207 were males and 150 females. The average age at the time of diagnosis was 38 years (2-85). 28 were excised in children under 16. In our series, the four lesions most frequently associated with NS were viral warts (4.09%), syringocystadenoma papilliferum (3.27 %), trichoblastoma (2.18 %) and basal cell carcinoma (1.91 %). Viral warts were the most frequent finding in children under 10 with NS (average age: 18.8; range 4-44). No associated malignant neoplasms were found in patients under the age of 27.
. As a conclusion, our experience supports the idea that most of the lesions associated with NS in children under the age of 10 are viral warts. The presence of a viral wart in NS does not exclude malignancy, even though this complication is infrequent in patients under 30. Dermatologists and pathologists should bear these facts in mind in order to improve the care of these patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth factor receptors (GFRs) are amenable to therapeutic intervention in cancer and it is important to select patients appropriately. One of the mechanisms for activation of GFRs is gene amplification (GA) but discrepancies arising from the difficulties associated with data interpretation and the lack of agreed parameters confound the comparison of results from different laboratories. Here, we attempt to establish appropriate conditions for standardization of the determination of GA in a panel of GFRs. A NSCLC tissue microarray panel containing 302 samples was screened for alterations at ALK, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, ERBB2, IGF1R, KIT, MET and PDGFRA by FISH, immunostaining and/or real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Strong amplification was found for FGFR1, ERBB2, KIT/PDFGRA and MET, with frequencies ranging from 1 to 6%. Thresholds for overexpression and GA were established. Strong immunostaining was found in most tumors with ERBB2, MET and KIT amplification, although some tumors underwent strong immunostaining in the absence of GA. KIT and PDFGRA were always co-amplified, but only one tumor showed PDGFRA overexpression, indicating that KIT is the main target. Amplification of FGFR1 predominated in squamous cell carcinomas, although the association with overexpression was inconclusive. Interestingly, alterations at ALK, MET, EGFR, ERBB2 and KRAS correlated with augmented levels of phospho-S6 protein, suggesting activation of the mTOR pathway, which may prove useful to pre-select tumors for testing. Overall, here, we provide with parameters for the determination of GA at ERBB2, MET, KIT, and PDGFRA which could be implemented in the clinic to stratify lung cancer patients for specific treatments.
International Journal of Cancer 02/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: To conduct a methods correlation study of three different assays for the detection of mutations at EGFR gene in human formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour (FFPET) specimens of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). METHODS: We conducted a 2-site method comparison study of two european conformity (CE) in vitro diagnostic (IVD)-marked assays, the cobas EGFR Mutation Test and the Therascreen EGFR29 Mutation Kit, and 2× bidirectional Sanger sequencing. We blind-tested 124 NSCLC FFPET specimens with all three methods; the cobas test was performed at both sites. Positive (PPA) and negative percent agreements (NPA) were determined for the cobas test versus each of the other two methods. Specimens yielding discordant test results between methods were further tested using quantitative massively parallel pyrosequencing (MPP). RESULTS: PPA between cobas and Sanger was 98.8%; NPA was 79.3%. Overall there were seven discordant results. MPP confirmed an exon 19 deletion in two cases and L858R mutation in four cases. PPA between cobas and Therascreen was 98.9% and NPA was 100%. There was one discordant result. Reproducibility of the cobas test between the two sites was 99.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The invalid rates for the cobas test and Therascreen were lower than Sanger sequencing. The cobas and Therascreen assays showed a high degree of concordance, and both were more sensitive for the detection of exon 19 deletion and L858R mutations than Sanger. The cobas test was highly reproducible between the two testing sites, used the least amount of DNA input and was the only test with automated results reporting.
Journal of clinical pathology 02/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The arrival of targeted therapies has presented both a conceptual and a practical challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). The relationship of these treatments with specific histologies and predictive biomarkers has made the handling of biopsies the key factor for success. In this study, we highlight the balance between precise histological diagnosis and the practice of conducting multiple predictive assays simultaneously. This can only be achieved where there is a commitment to multidisciplinary working by the tumor board to ensure that a sensible protocol is applied. This proposal for prioritizing samples includes both recent technological advances and the some of the latest discoveries in the molecular classification of NSCLCs.
Clinical and Translational Oncology 01/2013; · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cobas 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation Test is a CE-marked and FDA-approved in vitro diagnostic assay used to select patients with metastatic melanoma for treatment with the selective BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. We describe the pre-approval validation of this test in two external laboratories.
Melanoma specimens were tested for BRAF V600 mutations at two laboratories with the: cobas BRAF Mutation Test; ABI BRAF test; and bidirectional direct sequencing. Positive (PPA) and negative (NPA) percent agreements were determined between the cobas test and the other assays. Specimens with discordant results were tested with massively parallel pyrosequencing (454). DNA blends with 5% mutant alleles were tested to assess detection rates.
Invalid results were observed in 8/116 specimens (6·9%) with Sanger, 10/116 (8·6%) with ABI BRAF, and 0/232 (0%) with the cobas BRAF test. PPA was 97·7% for V600E mutation for the cobas BRAF test and Sanger, and NPA was 95·3%. For the cobas BRAF test and ABI BRAF, PPA was 71·9% and NPA 83·7%. For 16 cobas BRAF test-negative/ABI BRAF-positive specimens, 454 sequencing detected no codon 600 mutations in 12 and variant codon 600 mutations in four. For eight cobas BRAF test-positive/ABI BRAF-negative specimens, four were V600E and four V600K by 454 sequencing. Detection rates for 5% mutation blends were 100% for the cobas BRAF test, 33% for Sanger, and 21% for the ABI BRAF. Reproducibility of the cobas BRAF test was 111/116 (96%) between the two sites.
It is feasible to evaluate potential companion diagnostic tests in external laboratories simultaneously to the pivotal clinical trial validation. The health authority approved assay had substantially better performance characteristics than the two other methods. The overall success of the cobas BRAF test is a proof of concept for future biomarker development.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53733. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context.-The addition of cetuximab to first-line chemotherapy substantially prolonged survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer whose tumors expressed high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; immunohistochemistry score of ≥200 on a scale of 0-300). Objective.-To evaluate the interobserver reproducibility of this EGFR immunohistochemistry scoring system, based on both the tumor cell membrane staining intensity (graded 0-3+) and the percentage of cells staining at each intensity. Design.-In parts 1 (initial feasibility study) and 2 of this 2-part round robin test, sections of different non-small cell lung cancer tissue microarrays were stained in a central reference laboratory. Following reference evaluation, EGFR expression in 30 selected tumor cores was characterized in serial sections by lung cancer pathology specialists. The reproducibility of scoring by different raters was assessed. Analysis of between-rater agreement was based on the allocation of EGFR immunohistochemistry scores into low- (<200) and high- (≥200) EGFR expression groups. Results.-After discussion with raters of the issues impacting reproducibility identified in part 1 and following adjustment of processes, part 2 of the round robin test showed a high interobserver agreement in EGFR immunohistochemistry scoring, with an overall concordance rate of 90.9% and a mean κ coefficient of 0.812. Specimens with a reference EGFR immunohistochemistry score of lower than 200 and of 200 or higher showed mean concordance rates of 94.7% and 85.6%, respectively. Conclusions.-After appropriate training, assessing EGFR expression by this immunohistochemistry-based method allowed a highly reproducible allocation of non-small cell lung cancers into clinically relevant high- or low-EGFR expression groups.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 12/2012; · 2.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:: To investigate the feasibility of personalizing chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS:: Patients with cT3 or cN1 and cM0 rectal cancer were eligible. A set of 6 molecular markers including KRAS, BRAF, and PI3K mutations and expression of topoisomerase-1 (Topo-1), ERCC-1, and thymidylate synthase (TS) using immunohistochemistry were performed in a tumor biopsy. All patients were treated with capecitabine 625 to 825 mg/m/12 h M-F in combination with either irinotecan or oxaliplatin based on Topo-1 and ERCC-1 expression plus either bevacizumab or cetuximab based on the mutation status. All patients received intensity-modulated radiation therapy. A surgery was performed 6 to 8 weeks after the treatment. RESULTS:: Fifteen patients (94%) had T3 tumor and 10 (62%) N+ disease of 16 patients enrolled. In all patients, the full set of markers was analyzed within 10 days. Seven patients had K-ras mutation, and 4, 5, and 10 expressed Topo-1, ERRC-1 and TS, respectively. All patients had wild-type BRAF and PI3K tumors. The median time from obtaining informed consent to the treatment period was 18 days and all patients completed the chemoradiation treatment. Fifty percent achieved a complete pathologic response to treatment. Four patients (25%) developed grade 3 proctitis or diarrhea. There were no relevant surgical complications. Sixty-nine percent of the patients received adjuvant XELOX. CONCLUSIONS:: The individualization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer is feasible and leads to a high rate of pathologic response.
American journal of clinical oncology 12/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: To study the ALK translocation in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) seen at a European cancer centre, and its association with EGFR mutations, KRAS mutations and MET amplification. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included samples from 86 patients diagnosed with advanced NSCLC. ALK fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was performed using the ALK break-apart probe set (Vysis). ALK FISH-positive cases were defined as those with more than 15% break-apart signals or isolated red signals in 50 cells. EGFR and KRAS mutations were determined by direct sequencing. All ALK-positive cases were analysed retrospectively for MET amplification using a FISH assay, and for ALK mutations by sequencing. We found nine (10.5%) ALK-positive cases, all in adenocarcinomas and the majority in female patients (88.9%). Signet ring cells were observed in four (44.4%) of the nine patients. None of the ALK translocated cases showed MET amplifications or EGFR, KRAS and ALK mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ALK translocation in an unselected population of European patients with advanced NSCLCs was 10%. This alteration was mutually exclusive with EGFR and KRAS mutations, as well as with MET amplification. If multiplexing is considered at the preanalytical phase, lung biopsy specimens are sufficient for performing several predictive assays.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In non-small cell lung cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements have a major impact upon the level of response to treatment with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This review describes the molecular basis of ALK inhibition, summarizes current data on the effectiveness and safety of ALK inhibition therapy, describes the different testing methodologies with their advantages and disadvantages, provides a suggested testing algorithm and puts forward a proposal for an external quality assessment program in ALK testing.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 07/2012; 461(3):245-57. · 2.68 Impact Factor