[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that vancomycin treatment increased acquisition of eDNA and enhanced biofilm formation of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus through a cidA-mediated autolysis mechanism. Recently we found that such enhancement became more significant under a higher glucose concentration in vitro. We propose that besides improper antibiotic treatment, increased glucose concentration environment in diabetic animals may further enhance biofilm formation of drug-resistant S. aureus. To address this question, the diabetic mouse model infected by vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) was used under vancomycin treatment. The capacity to form biofilms was evaluated through a catheter-associated biofilm assay. A 10- and 1000-fold increase in biofilm-bound bacterial colony forming units was observed in samples from diabetic mice without and with vancomycin treatment, respectively, compared to healthy mice. By contrast, in the absence of glucose vancomycin reduced propensity to form biofilms in vitro through the increased production of proteases and DNases from VRSA. Our study highlights the potentially important role of increased glucose concentration in enhancing biofilm formation in vancomycin-treated diabetic mice infected by drug-resistant S. aureus.
PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0134852. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0134852 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus, an important human pathogen, is particularly adept at producing biofilms on implanted medical devices. Although antibiotic treatment of nonsusceptible bacteria will not kill these strains, the consequences should be studied. The present study focuses on investigating the effect of vancomycin on biofilm formation by vancomycin-non-susceptible S. aureus. Biofilm adherence assays and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that biofilm formation was significantly enhanced following vancomycin treatment. Bacterial autolysis of some subpopulations was observed and was confirmed by the live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. A significant increase in polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production was observed by measuring icaA transcript levels and in a semi-quantitative PIA assay in one resistant strain. We show that the release of extracellular DNA (eDNA) via cidA-mediated autolysis is a major contributor to vancomycin-enhanced biofilm formation. The addition of xenogeneic DNA could also significantly enhance biofilm formation by a PIA-overproducing S. aureus strain. The magnitude of the development of the biofilm depends on a balance between the amounts of eDNA and PIA. In conclusion, sublethal doses of cell wall-active antibiotics like vancomycin induce biofilm formation through an autolysis-dependent mechanism in vancomycin-non-susceptible S. aureus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed that the genomes of some pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains, including EDL933, were resistant to NotI digestion. An amino acid sequence comparison suggested that the z2389 gene carried on prophage CP-933R in strain EDL933 is likely to encode a C(5)-cytosine methyltransferase. The z2389-equivalent gene was found in the NotI-resistant strains tested, but it was not detected in the NotI-susceptible strains. PFGE analysis of the wild-type EDL933 strain and of a z2389 null mutant revealed that z2389 was associated with full genome protection against NotI digestion and partial protection against EagI digestion. In vitro methylation experiments with purified recombinant protein demonstrated that Z2389 is capable of methylating NotI and EagI sites. Sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA indicated that the methylation occurred at the first cytosine residue of the NotI recognition sequence, whereas EagI sites remained unmethylated or were methylated at the first cytosine residue. Thus, z2389 encodes a DNA cytosine methyltransferase that confers full protection to NotI sites.
International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 12/2009; 300(5):296-303. DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2009.11.003 · 3.42 Impact Factor