[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) limits the long-term success of lung transplantation, while T-cell effector mechanisms in this process remain incompletely understood. Using the murine heterotopic tracheal transplant model of obliterative airway disease (OAD) to characterize airway allograft rejection, we previously reported an important role for CD8(+) T cells in OAD. Herein, we studied the role of CD154/CD40 costimulation in the regulation of allospecific CD8(+) T cells, as airway rejection has been reported to be CD154-dependent. Airway allografts from CD154(-/-) recipients had significantly lower day 28 OAD scores compared to wild-type (WT) recipients, and adoptive transfer of CD8(+) T cells from WT recipients, but not CD154(-/-) recipients, were capable of airway rejection in fresh CD154(-/-) allograft recipients. Intragraft CD8(+) T cells from CD154(-/-) mice showed similar expression of the surface markers CD69, CD62L(low) CD44(high) and PD-1, but markedly impaired IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha secretion and granzyme B expression versus WT controls. Unexpectedly, intragraft and systemic CD8(+) T cells from CD154(-/-) recipients demonstrated robust in vivo expansion similar to WT recipients, consistent with an uncoupling of proliferation from effector function. Together, these data suggest that a lack of CD154/CD40 costimulation results in ineffective allospecific priming of CD8(+) T cells required for murine OAD.
American Journal of Transplantation 12/2009; 9(12):2697-706. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02805.x · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by rapid alveolar injury, inflammation, cytokine induction, and neutrophil accumulation. Although early events in the pathogenesis of ALI have been defined, the mechanisms underlying resolution are unknown. As a model of ALI, we administered intratracheal (i.t.) LPS to mice and observed peak lung injury 4 days after the challenge, with resolution by day 10. Numbers of alveolar lymphocytes increased as injury resolved. To examine the role of lymphocytes in this response, lymphocyte-deficient Rag-1-/- and C57BL/6 WT mice were exposed to i.t. LPS. The extent of injury was similar between the groups of mice through day 4, but recovery was markedly impaired in the Rag-1-/- mice. Adoptive transfer studies revealed that infusion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs as late as 24 hours after i.t. LPS normalized resolution in Rag-1-/- mice. Similarly, Treg depletion in WT mice delayed recovery. Treg transfer into i.t. LPS-exposed Rag-1-/- mice also corrected the elevated levels of alveolar proinflammatory cytokines and increased the diminished levels of alveolar TGF-beta and neutrophil apoptosis. Mechanistically, Treg-mediated resolution of lung injury was abrogated by TGF-beta inhibition. Moreover, BAL of patients with ALI revealed dynamic changes in CD3+CD4+CD25hiCD127loFoxp3+ cells. These results indicate that Tregs modify innate immune responses during resolution of lung injury and suggest potential targets for treating ALI, for which there are no specific therapies currently available.
The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2009; 119(10):2898-913. DOI:10.1172/JCI36498 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease associated with local epithelioid granulomas, CD4(+) T cells, and Th1 cytokines. The tissue Ags that drive this granulomatous inflammation are uncertain. In this study, we used IFN-gamma-ELISPOT assays and flow cytometry to assess lung and blood T cell responses to the candidate pathogenic Ag, Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase (mKatG) in patients with sarcoidosis from two centers. Despite differences in patient phenotypic, genetic, and prognostic characteristics, we report that T cell responses to mKatG were remarkably similar in these cohorts, with higher frequencies of mKatG-reactive, IFN-gamma-expressing T cells in the blood of sarcoidosis patients compared with nontuberculosis sensitized healthy controls, and (in a subset) in greater numbers than T cells reactive to purified protein derivative. In sarcoidosis, mKatG-reactive CD4(+) Th1 cells preferentially accumulated in the lung, indicating a compartmentalized response. Patients with or without Löfgren syndrome had similar frequencies of mKatG specific IFN-gamma-expressing blood T cells. Circulating mKatG-reactive T cells were found in chronic active sarcoidosis but not in patients with inactive disease. Together, these results demonstrate that T cell responses to mKatG in sarcoidosis fit a profile expected for a pathogenic Ag, supporting an immunotherapeutic approach to this disease.
The Journal of Immunology 01/2009; 181(12):8784-96. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.181.12.8784 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acquisition of T cell responses during primary CMV infection in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) appear critical for host defense and allograft durability, with increased mortality in donor+/recipient- (D+R-) individuals. In 15 D+R- LTRs studied, acute primary CMV infection was characterized by viremia in the presence or absence of pneumonitis, with viral loads higher in the lung airways/allograft compared with the blood. A striking influx of CD8+ T cells into the lung airways/allograft was observed, with inversion of the CD4+:CD8+ T cell ratio. De novo CMV-specific CD8+ effector frequencies in response to pooled peptides of pp65 were strikingly higher in lung mononuclear cells compared with the PBMC and predominated over IE1-specific responses and CD4+ effector responses in both compartments. The frequencies of pp65-specific cytokine responses were significantly higher in lung mononuclear cells compared with PBMC and demonstrated marked contraction with long-term persistence of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the lung airways following primary infection. CMV-tetramer+CD8+ T cells from PBMC were CD45RA- during viremia and transitioned to CD45RA+ following resolution. In contrast, CMV-specific CD8+ effectors in the lung airways/allograft maintained a CD45RA- phenotype during transition from acute into chronic infection. Together, these data reveal differential CMV-specific CD8+ effector frequencies, immunodominance, and polyfunctional cytokine responses predominating in the lung airways/allograft compared with the blood during acute primary infection. Moreover, we show intercompartmental phenotypic differences in CMV-specific memory responses during the transition to chronic infection.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2008; 181(1):546-56. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.181.1.546 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term success in lung transplantation is limited by obliterative bronchiolitis, whereas T cell effector mechanisms in this process remain incompletely understood. Using the mouse heterotopic allogeneic airway transplant model, we studied T cell effector responses during obliterative airways disease (OAD). Allospecific CD8+ IFN-gamma+ T cells were detected in airway allografts, with significant coexpression of TNF-alpha and granzyme B. Therefore, using IFN-gamma as a surrogate marker, we assessed the distribution and kinetics of extragraft allo-specific T cells during OAD. Robust allospecific IFN-gamma was produced by draining the lymph nodes, spleen, and lung mononuclear cells from allograft, but not isograft recipients by Day 14, and significantly decreased by Day 28. Although the majority of allospecific T cells were CD8+, allospecific CD4+ T cells were also detected in these compartments, with each employing distinct allorecognition pathways. An influx of pluripotent CD8+ effector cells with a memory phenotype were detected in the lung during OAD similar to those seen in the allografts and secondary lymphoid tissue. Antibody depletion of CD8+ T cells markedly reduced airway lumen obliteration and fibrosis at Day 28. Together, these data demonstrate that allospecific CD8+ effector T cells play an important role in OAD and traffic to the lung after heterotopic airway transplant, suggesting that the lung is an important immunologic site, and perhaps a reservoir, for effector cells during the rejection process.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 02/2006; 34(1):108-18. DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2005-0164OC · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary CMV infection in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) is associated with increased mortality. We studied 22 donor CMV-positive, recipient-negative (D(+)R(-)) LTRs for the development of posttransplant CMV-specific immunity. We found that 13 of 22 D(+)R(-) LTRs (59.1%) seroconverted (CMV IgG Ab(+)). Using pooled peptides of the immunodominant CMV Ags pp65 and IE1, we detected CMV-specific CD8(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells in the PBMC of 90% of seroconverted individuals following primary infection by intracellular cytokine staining. In contrast, few seroconverters had detectable CMV-specific CD4(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells during viral latency. However, the majority of IgG(+) LTRs demonstrated CMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferative responses from PBMC, with CD4(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells detectable upon re-expansion. Examination of lung allograft mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage revealed both CMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells, including patients from whom CD4(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells were simultaneously undetectable in the PBMC, suggesting differential effector memory populations between these compartments. Moreover, both responses in the PBMC and lung allograft were found to persist, despite substantial immunosuppression, long after primary infection. Clinical correlation in this cohort demonstrated that the acquisition of CMV immunity was associated with freedom from CMV disease (p < or = 0.009) and preservation of allograft function (p < or = 0.02) compared with those who failed to develop CMV immunity. Together, our data reveal immunologic heterogeneity in D(+)R(-) LTRs, with the development and persistence of primary CMV responses that may provide clinical benefit.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2006; 176(4):2625-34. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.176.4.2625 · 4.92 Impact Factor