[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) is a relatively newly described and yet indispensable enzyme needed for generation of the bioactive surfactant phospholipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPtdCho). Here, we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes LPCAT1 degradation using the Skp1-Cullin-F-box ubiquitin E3 ligase component, β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP), that polyubiquitinates LPCAT1, thereby targeting the enzyme for proteasomal degradation. LPCAT1 was identified as a phosphoenzyme as Ser(178) within a phosphodegron was identified as a putative molecular recognition site for glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation that recruits β-TrCP docking within the enzyme. β-TrCP ubiquitinates LPCAT1 at an acceptor site (Lys(221)), as substitution of Lys(221) with Arg abrogated LPCAT1 polyubiquitination. LPS profoundly reduced immunoreactive LPCAT1 levels and impaired lung surfactant mechanics, effects that were overcome by siRNA to β-TrCP and GSK-3β or LPCAT1 gene transfer, respectively. Thus, LPS appears to destabilize the LPCAT1 protein by GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation within a canonical phosphodegron for β-TrCP docking and site-specific ubiquitination. LPCAT1 is the first lipogenic substrate for β-TrCP, and the results suggest that modulation of the GSK-3β-SCFβ(TrCP) E3 ligase effector pathway might be a unique strategy to optimize dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine levels in sepsis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death from infection in the US, yet fundamentally new conceptual models underlying its pathogenesis have not emerged. We show that humans and mice with bacterial pneumonia have markedly elevated amounts of cardiolipin, a rare, mitochondrial-specific phospholipid, in lung fluid and find that it potently disrupts surfactant function. Intratracheal cardiolipin administration in mice recapitulates the clinical phenotype of pneumonia, including impaired lung mechanics, modulation of cell survival and cytokine networks and lung consolidation. We have identified and characterized the activity of a unique cardiolipin transporter, the P-type ATPase transmembrane lipid pump Atp8b1, a mutant version of which is associated with severe pneumonia in humans and mice. Atp8b1 bound and internalized cardiolipin from extracellular fluid via a basic residue-enriched motif. Administration of a peptide encompassing the cardiolipin binding motif or Atp8b1 gene transfer in mice lessened bacteria-induced lung injury and improved survival. The results unveil a new paradigm whereby Atp8b1 is a cardiolipin importer whose capacity to remove cardiolipin from lung fluid is exceeded during inflammation or when Atp8b1 is defective. This discovery opens the door for new therapeutic strategies directed at modulating the abundance or molecular interactions of cardiolipin in pneumonia.
Nature medicine 10/2010; 16(10):1120-7. DOI:10.1038/nm.2213 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), the major phospholipid of animal membranes, is generated by its remodeling and de novo synthesis. Overexpression of the remodeling enzyme, LPCAT1 (acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase) in epithelia
decreased de novo PtdCho synthesis without significantly altering cellular PtdCho mass. Overexpression of LPCAT1 increased degradation of CPT1
(cholinephosphotransferase), a resident Golgi enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step for de novo PtdCho synthesis. CPT1 degradation involved its multiubiquitination and processing via the lysosomal pathway. CPT1 mutants
harboring arginine substitutions at multiple carboxyl-terminal lysines exhibited proteolytic resistance to effects of LPCAT1
overexpression in cells and restored de novo PtdCho synthesis. Thus, cross-talk between phospholipid remodeling and de novo pathways involves ubiquitin-lysosomal processing of a key molecular target that mechanistically provides homeostatic control
of cellular PtdCho content.