[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a ligand-regulated nuclear hormone receptor, plays critical roles in metabolism and adipogenesis. PPARγ ligands such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) exert insulin sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects primarily through action on adipocytes, and are thus widely used to treat metabolic syndrome, especially type II diabetes. A number of PPARγ interacting partners have been identified, many of which are known epigenetic regulators, including enzymes for histone acetylation/deacetylation and histone methylation/demethylation. However, their functional roles in the PPARγ transcriptional pathway are not well defined. Recent advances in ChIP-based and deep sequencing technology are revealing previously underappreciated epigenomic mechanisms and therapeutic potentials of this nuclear receptor pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is an abundantly available source of proliferative and multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with promising potential for regenerative therapeutics. We previously demonstrated that both human and mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with efficiencies higher than those that have been reported for other cell types. The ASC-derived iPSCs can be generated in a feeder-independent manner, representing a unique model to study reprogramming and an important step toward establishing a safe, clinical grade of cells for therapeutic use. In this study, we provide a detailed protocol for isolation, preparation and transformation of ASCs from fat tissue into mouse iPSCs in feeder-free conditions and human iPSCs using feeder-dependent or feeder/xenobiotic-free processes. This protocol also describes how ASCs can be used as feeder cells for maintenance of other pluripotent stem cells. ASC derivation is rapid and can be completed in <1 week, with mouse and human iPS reprogramming times averaging 1.5 and 2.5 weeks, respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although adipose tissue is an expandable and readily attainable source of proliferating, multipotent stem cells, its potential for use in regenerative medicine has not been extensively explored. Here we report that adult human and mouse adipose-derived stem cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with substantially higher efficiencies than those reported for human and mouse fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, both human and mouse iPS cells can be obtained in feeder-free conditions. We discovered that adipose-derived stem cells intrinsically express high levels of pluripotency factors such as basic FGF, TGFbeta, fibronectin, and vitronectin and can serve as feeders for both autologous and heterologous pluripotent cells. These results demonstrate a great potential for adipose-derived cells in regenerative therapeutics and as a model for studying the molecular mechanisms of feeder-free iPS generation and maintenance.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2010; 107(8):3558-63. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used to treat type 2 diabetes, how its activation in individual tissues contributes to TZD's therapeutic action remains controversial. As TZDs are known to have receptor-independent effects, we sought to establish gain-of-function animal models to delineate the receptor's insulin-sensitizing actions. Unexpectedly, we find that selective activation of PPARgamma in adipocytes, but not in macrophages, is sufficient for whole-body insulin sensitization equivalent to systemic TZD treatment. In addition to improved adipokine, inflammatory, and lipid profiles, PPARgamma activation in mature adipocytes normalizes serum insulin without increased adipogenesis. Co-culture studies indicated that PPARgamma-activated adipocytes broadly suppress induction of inflammatory cytokines and C-X-C family chemokines in macrophages. Collectively, these data describe an "adipocentric" model in which adipose activation of PPARgamma is sufficient for complete insulin sensitization and suggest a specific application for fat selective PPARgamma modulators in diabetic therapy.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2009; 106(52):22504-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor