Mitomycin and irinotecan are widely used in the treatment of colorectal cancer, furthermore both of these drugs are active agents against nonsmall cell lung cancer and their combination has shown synergism in preclinical studies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mitomycin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy combination in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer progressing after previous antineoplastic therapies. METHODS: /st>Thirty-one consecutive patients suffering from nonsmall cell lung cancer, who underwent mitomycin- plus irinotecan-based chemotherapy as salvage treatment after failure of at least two previous systemic treatments, were retrospectively identified in our database. Between September 2003 and March 2011, 31 patients with histologically proven stage IIIB or IV nonsmall cell lung cancer, received mitomycin 5 mg/m(2) on day 1 followed by irinotecan 150 mg/m(2) on day 2. Cycles were repeated at 2-week interval. RESULTS: /st>A total of 164 cycles of treatment were given with a median of five per patient (range 1-10). The objective responses included partial response in 6 patients (19.3%), stable disease in 4 (13%), and progressive disease in 21 (67.7%). Median time to disease progression was 4 months, and median survival was 9+ months. Twelve patients (38%) reached 1-year survival. Grade 3-4 toxicities occurred in seven patients (22.5%), mainly myelosuppression (neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia), mucositis, and diarrhea. No treatment-related death was recorded. CONCLUSION: /st>The mitomycin- and irinotecan-based combination chemotherapy seems to be tolerated and active in this subset of heavily pretreated patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. However, evaluation or recruitment of a larger number of patients would be needed to provide more adequate data on safety and activity of the described combination.
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice 10/2012;
ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) and brain metastases (MTS) are significant clinical problems in the cancer patient population. Brain MTS and deep vein thrombosis are life-threatening conditions because of the risk of fatal endocranic hypertension and pulmonary embolism. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is a major treatment for cancer patients suffering from VTE with regard to the management of the acute phase and subsequent secondary prophylaxis. Treatment with anticoagulants is feared because of the risk of triggering a massive intracranial hemorrhage.
The medical records of patients with hypercoagulability-related complications and carrying brain MTS treated with LMWH, in a 10-year period, were scrutinized. The authors aimed to focus on the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage in anticoagulated patients; furthermore, data were collected with regard to the characteristics of the administered LMWHs along with the duration and dosing of the anticoagulative treatment.
A total of 38 patients (pts) carrying an intracranial metastatic tumor were administered LMWHs: calcium nadroparin (32 pts); enoxaparin (2 pts); reviparin (2 pts); parnaparin (2 pts). Reason for LMWH therapy: deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism (15 pts); superficial thrombophlebitis (15 pts); intracardiac thrombus (1 pt); mild DIC (5 pts); acute DIC (1 pt); Raynaud phenomenon (1 pt); atrial fibrillation (1 pt). Median duration of LMWH therapy: 13 weeks (range 1-52). None of the patients developed clinical and/or radiographic findings imputable to intracranial hemorrhage.
There is no standard medical approach for the management of patients who require anticoagulant treatment and are suffering from brain MTS. These patients as necessary, might be anticoagulated with LMWH and its dose reduction is to be considered.
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice 01/2011; 18(1):10-6.
ABSTRACT: To focus on the optimal management of thromboembolic complication in patients who have undergone chemotherapy with concomitant brain metastases and referred to a Division of Clinical Oncology.
Thromboembolic diseases are common events in cancer patients due to clotting activation by tumor cells. On the other hand, brain metastases are common complication of systemic cancers. Postmortem studies show that a quarter of patients dying from cancer have intracranial metastases. Brain metastases and pulmonary embolism are life-threatening conditions because of the risk of fatal endocranic hypertension and severe dyspnea. Calcium nadroparin is a low molecular weight heparin usually administered in patient with venous thromboembolism at a dose level of 180 IU/kg/daily.
The authors report the cases of two patients with intracranial metastases and pulmonary embolism-related dyspnea successfully treated with low dose of calcium nadroparin. A patient suffering from metastatic breast cancer and another one with metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer were recently referred to our department because of severe dyspnea occurring during chemotherapy treatment. Both patients had cerebellar intracranial metastases. Massive pulmonary embolisms were shown by means of the computerized tomography. Despite the administration of a lower heparin dose than the usual one, around three-quarters of the calcium nadroparin daily conventional dose, quickly regressed dyspnea. Significant pulmonary embolism regression was revealed with computerized tomography scan within 8 weeks from the beginning of the thromboembolic complications. None of the patients showed any heparin treatment-related complications.
The authors conclude that, with regard to cancer patients carrying brain metastases who require anti-coagulant therapy, increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage should be kept in mind. An initial low molecular weight heparin dose reduction could be effective, and safely administered, also in case of pulmonary embolism with severe dyspnea.
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice 12/2009; 17(2):141-4.
I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]. 3(2):S38-41.