[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sunitinib is an oral multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antitumor activity that mainly targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, and recently, it has been shown to be an active agent for the treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas. Previously, we demonstrated that sunitinib directly inhibited mTORC1 signaling in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Although autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process, its relevance to cancer seems to be complicated. It is of note that inhibition of mTORC1 is a prerequisite for autophagy induction. Indeed, direct mTORC1 inhibition initiates ULK1/2 autophosphorylation and subsequent Atg13 and FIP200 phosphorylation, inducing autophagy. Here, we demonstrated that sunitinib significantly increased the levels of LC3-II, concomitant with a decrease of p62 in PC12 cells. Following sunitinib treatment, immunofluorescent imaging revealed a marked increased punctate LC3-II distribution. Furthermore, Atg13 knockdown significantly reduced its protein level, which in turn abolished sunitinib-induced autophagy. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy by siRNAs targeting Atg13 or by pharmacological inhibition with ammonium chloride, enhanced both sunitinib-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation. Thus, sunitinib-induced autophagy is dependent on the suppression of mTORC1 signaling and the formation of ULK1/2-Atg13-FIP200 complexes. Inhibition of autophagy may be a promising therapeutic option for improving the anti-tumor effect of sunitinib.
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 12/2012; · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factor E3 (TFE3) belongs to a basic helix-loop-helix family, and is involved in the biology of osteoclasts, melanocytes and their malignancies. We previously reported the metabolic effects of TFE3 on insulin in the liver and skeletal muscles in animal models. In the present study, we explored a novel role for TFE3 in a skeletal muscle cell line. When TFE3 was overexpressed in C2C12 myoblasts by adenovirus before induction of differentiation, myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells was significantly inhibited. Adenovirus-mediated TFE3 overexpression also suppressed the gene expression of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs), such as MyoD and myogenin, during C2C12 differentiation. In contrast, knockdown of TFE3 using adenovirus encoding short-hairpin RNAi specific for TFE3 dramatically promoted myoblast differentiation associated with significantly increased expression of MRFs. Consistent with these findings, promoter analyses via luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay suggested that TFE3 negatively regulated myogenin promoter activity by direct binding to an E-box, E2, in the myogenin promoter. These findings indicated that TFE3 has a regulatory role in myoblast differentiation, and that transcriptional suppression of myogenin expression may be part of the mechanism of action.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2012; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sunitinib is an oral, small molecule multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antitumor activity that primarily targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Although sunitinib is an active agent for the treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas, it is unclear whether sunitinib acts through only antiangiogenic mechanisms or also directly targets tumor cells. We previously showed that sunitinib directly induced apoptosis of PC-12 cells. To further confirm these direct effects, we examined the effects of sunitinib on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis) activity and catecholamine secretion in PC-12 cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sunitinib inhibited TH activity in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased TH protein levels. Consistent with this finding, sunitinib decreased TH phosphorylation at Ser(31) and Ser(40) and significantly decreased catecholamine secretion. VEGFR-2 knockdown attenuated these effects, including inhibition of TH activity and catecholamine secretion, suggesting that they were mediated by VEGFR-2. Sunitinib significantly decreased phospholipase C (PLC)-γ phosphorylation and subsequent protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Because Ser(40) phosphorylation significantly affects TH activity and is known to be regulated by PKC, sunitinib may inhibit Ser(40) phosphorylation via the VEGFR-2/PLC-γ/PKC pathway. Additionally, sunitinib markedly decreased the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Therefore, sunitinib may reduce TH Ser(31) phosphorylation through inhibition of the VEGFR-2/PLC-γ/PKC/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase/ERK pathway. Sunitinib also significantly reduced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. However, because PC-12 cells do not precisely reflect the pathogenesis of malignant cells, we confirmed the key findings in a human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH. In conclusion, sunitinib directly inhibits catecholamine synthesis and secretion in pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2012; 303(8):E1006-14. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, TMEM127 was shown to be a new pheochromocytoma susceptibility gene; this is consistent with its function as a tumour suppressor gene (Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2009, 94, 2817). Most pheochromocytomas arise from the adrenal medulla, and in approximately half of the cases, the tumours are bilateral (Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2009, 94, 2817; Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004, 292, 943; Human Mutation, 2010, 31, 41; Science, 2009, 325, 1139). The aim of the present study was to determine whether TMEM127 mutations are involved in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas in Japanese subjects.
For this study, 74 unrelated patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma who tested negative for mutations and deletions in RET, VHL, SDHB and SDHD were recruited through a multi-institutional collaborative effort in Japan. The TMEM127 gene sequence was determined in their germline DNA, and tumour DNA was analysed for the loss of heterozygosity. In addition, their TMEM127 gene sequences were compared with sequences from 114 normal healthy, ethnically matched controls.
Among the 74 eligible patients, two unrelated patients (2·7%) with bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma were found to have an identical germline TMEM127 mutation (c.116_119delTGTC, p.Ile41ArgfsX39) associated with 2q deletion loss of heterozygosity, which was also previously described in a Brazilian case (Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004, 292, 943). We also determined that none of the 114 normal healthy controls had this deletion mutation.
This is the first report showing that TMEM127 mutation plays a pathological role in pheochromocytoma in an Asian population. Although our surveillance is limited, the prevalence and the phenotype of this gene mutation appear to be similar to those reported in previous studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dicer is a rate-limiting enzyme for microRNA (miRNA) synthesis. To determine the effects of Dicer on adipogenesis, we performed stage-specific knockdown of Dicer using adenovirus encoding short-hairpin RNAi against Dicer in 3T3-L1 cells. When cells were infected with the adenovirus before induction of adipocyte differentiation, Dicer RNAi suppressed the gene expression of inducers of adipocyte differentiation such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FAS in 3T3-L1 cells during adipocyte differentiation. Concurrently, both adipocyte differentiation and cellular lipid accumulation were cancelled by Dicer RNAi when compared with control RNAi. Meanwhile, we addressed the roles of Dicer in lipid synthesis and accumulation in the final stages of differentiation. When the differentiated cells at day 4 after induction of differentiation were infected with adenovirus Dicer RNAi, cellular lipid accumulation was unchanged. Consistent with this, Dicer RNAi had no effects on the expression of genes related to cellular lipid accumulation, including PPARγ and FAS. Thus, Dicer controls proadipogenic genes such as C/EBPα and PPARγ in the early, but not in the late, stage of adipogenesis via regulation of miRNA synthesis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2012; 420(4):931-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of transcription factor E3 (TFE3), a bHLH transcription factor, in immunology and cancer has been well characterized. Recently, we reported that TFE3 activates hepatic IRS-2 and hexokinase, participates in insulin signaling, and ameliorates diabetes. However, the effects of TFE3 in other organs are poorly understood. Herein, we examined the effects of TFE3 on skeletal muscle, an important organ involved in glucose metabolism. We generated transgenic mice that selectively express TFE3 in skeletal muscles. These mice exhibit a slight acceleration in growth prior to adulthood as well as a progressive increase in muscle mass. In TFE3 transgenic muscle, glycogen stores were more than twofold than in wild-type mice, and this was associated with an upregulation of genes involved in glucose metabolism, specifically glucose transporter 4, hexokinase II, and glycogen synthase. Consequently, exercise endurance capacity was enhanced in this transgenic model. Furthermore, insulin sensitivity was enhanced in transgenic mice and exhibited better improvement after 4 wk of exercise training, which was associated with increased IRS-2 expression. The effects of TFE3 on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle were different from that in the liver, although they did, in part, overlap. The potential role of TFE3 in regulating metabolic genes and glucose metabolism within skeletal muscle suggests that it may be used for treating metabolic diseases as well as increasing endurance in sport.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2012; 302(7):E896-902. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sunitinib is an oral multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antitumor activity that mainly targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Very recently, sunitinib has been shown to be an active agent for the treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas. However, it is unclear whether sunitinib acts only through an antiangiogenic mechanism or whether it may also directly target tumor cells. Sunitinib markedly induced apoptosis of PC12 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, in support of these findings, we found that sunitinib induced a reduction in the expression of the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2 as well as dephosphorylation of the proapoptotic molecule BAD, which results in the activation of BAD in these cells. Consistent with these apoptotic effects, our results showed that sunitinib inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR and was followed by a reduction of S6K1, which is a well-known target of mTOR. Knockdown of VEGFR-2 attenuated the sunitinib-induced effects, including apoptosis and inhibition of signaling pathways such as the phosphorylation of Akt as well as mTOR, and Bcl-2, which confirmed that these effects could be mediated by VEGFR-2. In addition, silencing of S6K1 induced apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in the phosphorylation of BAD and Bcl-2, similar to that observed with sunitinib treatment. Thus, these results together suggest that sunitinib initially exerts its apoptotic effect through the inhibition of VEGFR-2, which, when followed by reduction of its downstream effectors, including Akt/mTOR/S6K1, may lead to inhibition of the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2 and activation of the proapoptotic molecule BAD in PC12 cells. However, PC12 cells do not precisely reflect the pathogenesis of malignant cells. Therefore, we confirmed the key findings by replicating these experiments in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2011; 302(6):E615-25. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the physiological role of CREBH, the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of CREBH were estimated in various feeding states of wild and obesity mice. In the fast state, the expression of CREBH mRNA and nuclear protein were high and profoundly suppressed by refeeding in the wild-type mice. In ob/ob mice, the refeeding suppression was impaired. The diet studies suggested that CREBH expression was activated by fatty acids. CREBH mRNA levels in the mouse primary hepatocytes were elevated by addition of the palmitate, oleate and eicosapenonate. It was also induced by PPARalpha agonist and repressed by PPARalpha antagonist. Luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that the CREBH promoter activity was induced by fatty acids and co-expression of PPARalpha. Deletion studies identified the PPRE for PPARalpha activation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that PPARalpha directly binds to the PPRE. Activation of CREBH at fasting through fatty acids and PPARalpha suggest that CREBH is involved in nutritional regulation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2009; 391(2):1222-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor