Are you Douglas P Gibson?

Claim your profile

Publications (14)86.42 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective End stage liver disease is associated with diminished quality of life. Numerous physical and psychosocial problems that impact quality of life are common in those undergoing evaluation for liver transplantation. Identifying which of these challenges are most closely associated with quality of life would be helpful in developing priority targets for evidence-based interventions specific to those undergoing transplant evaluation. Method 108 adults undergoing psychological assessment for liver transplant completed clinical interview, neuropsychological testing, and self-report inventories of depression, anxiety, cognitive appraisal characteristics, support resources, and quality of life. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that while emotional symptoms (anxiety and depression) were primarily associated with mental quality of life, illness apprehension was the only variable uniquely associated with physical quality of life after accounting for severity of liver disease, cognitive status, emotional symptoms, and support resources. Conclusion Findings suggest that psychosocial interventions prioritizing reduction of illness related fear and symptoms of anxiety/depression will likely have the greatest impact on quality of life in persons with end stage liver disease awaiting transplantation.
    Psychosomatics 01/2013; · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The subjectivity of the West-Haven criteria (WHC) hinders hepatic encephalopathy (HE) evaluation. The new HE classification has emphasised assessment of orientation. The modified-orientation log (MO-log, eight questions, scores 0-24; 24 normal) is adapted from a validated brain injury measure. To validate MO-log for HE assessment in cirrhosis. Cirrhotics admitted with/without HE were administered MO-log. We collected cirrhosis/HE details, admission/daily MO-logs and WHC (performed by different examiners), time to reach normal mentation (MO-log ≥23) and MO-log/WHC change (Δ) over day 1. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, duration to normal mentation and length-of-stay (LOS). Regressions were performed for each outcome. MO-log inter-rater reliability was measured. Ninety-six HE (55 ± 8 years, MELD 21) and 20 non-HE (54 ± 5 years, MELD 19) in-patients were included. In HE patients, median admission WHC was 3 (range 1-4). Mean MO-log was 12 ± 8 (range 0-22). Their LOS was 6 ± 5 days and 13% died. Time to reach normal mentation was 2.4 ± 1.7 days. Concurrent validity: there was a significant negative correlation between admission MO-log and WHC (r = -0.79, P < 0.0001). Discriminant validity: admission MO-logs were significantly lower in those who died (7 vs. 12, P = 0.03) and higher in those admitted without HE (23.6 vs. 12, P < 0.0001). MO-log improved in 69% on day 1 (ΔMO-log 4 ± 8) which was associated with lower duration to normal mentation (2 vs. 3.5 days, P = 0.03) and mortality (3% vs.43%, P < 0.0001), not ΔWHC. Regression models for all outcomes included admission/ΔMO-log but not WHC as a predictor. Inter-rater reliability: ICC for MO-log inter-rater observations was 0.991. Modified-orientation log is a valid tool for assessing severity and is better than West-Haven criteria in predicting outcomes in hospitalised hepatic encephalopathy patients.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 02/2012; 35(8):913-20. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cirrhotic patients have an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which is usually analysed using static paper-pencil questionnaires. The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) computerised adaptive testing (CAT) are flexible, freely available, noncopyrighted, HRQOL instruments with US-based norms across 11 domains. CAT presents five to seven questions/domain depending on the patient's response, from large validated question banks. This provides brevity and precision equivalent to the entire question bank. To evaluate PROMIS CAT tools against 'legacy instruments' for cirrhotics and their informal caregivers. A total of 200 subjects: 100 cirrhotics (70 men, 53% decompensated) and 100 caregivers were administered the PROMIS and legacy instruments [Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), Beck depression/anxiety inventories, Pittsburgh Sleep-Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness scale (ESS)] concurrently. Both legacy and PROMIS results for patients were compared with caregivers and US norms. These were also compared between compensated and decompensated patients. Preference for SIP or PROMIS was inquired of a selected group (n = 70, 50% patients). Test - retest reliability was assessed in another group of 20 patients. Patients had significant impairment on all PROMIS domains apart from anger and anxiety compared with caregivers and US norms (P < 0.02 to <0.0001). Decompensated patients had significantly worse sleep, pain, social and physical function scores compared with compensated ones, similar to legacy instruments. There was a statistically significant correlation between PROMIS and their corresponding legacy instruments. The majority (71%) preferred PROMIS over SIP. PROMIS tools had significant test - retest reliability (ICC range 0.759-0.985) when administered 12 ± 6 days apart. PROMIS computerised adaptive testing tools had significant concurrent and discriminant validity, test - retest reliability and subject preference for assessing HRQOL in cirrhotic patients.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 09/2011; 34(9):1123-32. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with poor driving skills and insight. Increasing insight may improve receptiveness for therapy or driving restrictions. To evaluate the change in the self-assessment of driving skills (SADS) using a driving simulator. Cirrhotic patients and age/education-matched controls underwent MHE testing with inhibitory control (ICT) and the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES). SADS, a Likert scale from 0 to 10, was administered just before and after a standardized driving simulation comprising testing and navigation tasks. The percentage SADS change from baseline was compared within/between groups. A total of 84 patients (60% men, age 55 years) and 12 controls were included. Controls were significantly better than cirrhotics on cognitive/simulator testing. The baseline SADS was similar between the groups. The baseline patient SADS was only correlated with ICT lures (r = -0.4, P = 0.001). Post-simulation, 60% of patients improved their insight, i.e., reduced SADS (from 8 to 6.5, P = 0.0001) compared to 25% of controls (P = 0.02). The mean percentage SADS reduction was also higher in cirrhotics (18% vs. 8%, P = 0.03). MHE on ICT patients had a significantly higher SADS improvement (P = 0.004) compared to the other patients; no difference was seen in those with/without MHE due to the PHES. The percentage SADS reduction in patients was correlated with getting lost (r = 0.468, P < 0.0001), crashes (P = 0.002), and centerline/road-edge excursions (P = 0.01). There was a significantly higher percentage SADS reduction in cirrhotics who got lost (25%) compared to those who did not get lost (12%) and controls (8%, P = 0.014). Insight into driving skills in cirrhosis improves after driving simulation and is highest in those with navigation errors and MHE on ICT. Driving simulator-associated insight improvement may be the first step towards the cognitive rehabilitation of driving skills in cirrhosis.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 09/2011; 57(2):554-60. · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) can adversely affect survival, but their effect on socioeconomic and emotional burden on the family is not clear. The aim was to study the emotional and socioeconomic burden of cirrhosis and HE on patients and informal caregivers. A cross-sectional study in two transplant centers (Veterans and University) of cirrhotic patients and their informal caregivers was performed. Demographics for patient/caregivers, model-for-end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and cirrhosis complications were recorded. Patients underwent a cognitive battery, sociodemographic, and financial questionnaires. Caregivers were given the perceived caregiver burden (PCB; maximum=155) and Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI)-Short Form (maximum=48) and questionnaires for depression, anxiety, and social support. A total of 104 cirrhotics (70% men, 44% previous HE, median MELD 12, 49% veterans) and their caregivers (66% women, 77% married, relationship duration 32±14 years) were included. Cirrhosis severely impacted the family unit with respect to work (only 56% employed), finances, and adherence. Those with previous HE had worse unemployment (87.5 vs. 19%, P=0.0001) and financial status (85 vs. 61%, P=0.019) and posed a higher caregiver burden; PCB (75 vs. 65, P=0.019) and ZBI (16 vs. 11, P=0.015) compared with others. Cognitive performance and MELD score were significantly correlated with employment and caregiver burden. Veterans and non-veterans were equally affected. On regression, depression score, MELD, and cognitive tests predicted both PCB and ZBI score. Previous HE and cognitive dysfunction are associated with worse employment, financial status, and caregiver burden. Cirrhosis-related expenses impact the family unit's daily functioning and medical adherence. A multidisciplinary approach to address this burden is required.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2011; 106(9):1646-53. · 9.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) have driving difficulties but the effects of therapy on driving performance is unclear. We evaluated whether performance on a driving simulator improves in patients with MHE after treatment with rifaximin. Patients with MHE who were current drivers were randomly assigned to placebo or rifaximin groups and followed up for 8 weeks (n = 42). Patients underwent driving simulation (driving and navigation tasks) at the start (baseline) and end of the study. We evaluated patients' cognitive abilities, quality of life (using the Sickness Impact Profile), serum levels of ammonia, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and model for end-stage-liver disease scores. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients who improved in driving performance, calculated as follows: total driving errors = speeding + illegal turns + collisions. Over the 8-week study period, patients given rifaximin made significantly greater improvements than those given placebo in avoiding total driving errors (76% vs 31%; P = .013), speeding (81% vs 33%; P = .005), and illegal turns (62% vs 19%; P = .01). Of patients given rifaximin, 91% improved their cognitive performance, compared with 61% of patients given placebo (P = .01); they also made improvements in the psychosocial dimension of the Sickness Impact Profile compared with the placebo group (P = .04). Adherence to the assigned drug averaged 92%. Neither group had changes in ammonia levels or model for end-stage-liver disease scores, but patients in the rifaximin group had increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. Patients with MHE significantly improve driving simulator performance after treatment with rifaximin, compared with placebo.
    Gastroenterology 02/2011; 140(2):478-487.e1. · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In patients with cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) has acute but reversible as well as chronic components. We investigated the extent of residual cognitive impairment following clinical resolution of overt HE (OHE). Cognitive function of cirrhotic patients was evaluated using psychometric tests (digit symbol, block design, and number connection [NCT-A and B]) and the inhibitory control test (ICT). Improvement (reduction) in ICT lures and first minus second halves (DeltaL(1-2)) were used to determine learning of response inhibition. Two cross-sectional studies (A and B) compared data from stable cirrhotic patients with or without prior OHE. We then prospectively assessed cognitive performance, before and after the first episode of OHE. In study A (226 cirrhotic patients), 54 had experienced OHE, 120 had minimal HE, and 52 with no minimal HE. Despite normal mental status on lactulose after OHE, cirrhotic patients were cognitively impaired, based on results from all tests. Learning of response inhibition (DeltaL(1-2) > or =1) was evident in patients with minimal HE and no minimal HE but was lost after OHE. In study B (50 additional patients who developed > or =1 documented OHE episode during follow-up), the number of OHE hospitalizations correlated with severity of residual impairment, indicated by ICT lures (r = 0.5, P = .0001), digit symbol test (r = -0.39, P = .002), and number connection test-B (r = 0.33, P = .04). In the prospective study (59 cirrhotic patients without OHE), 15 developed OHE; ICT lure response worsened significantly after OHE (12 before vs 18 after, P = .0003), and learning of response inhibition was lost. The 44 patients who did not experience OHE did not have deteriorations in cognitive function in serial testing. In cirrhosis, episodes of OHE are associated with persistent and cumulative deficits in working memory, response inhibition, and learning.
    Gastroenterology 02/2010; 138(7):2332-40. · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2010; 52.
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Advances in treatment have prolonged life in heart failure (HF) patients, leading to increased attention to quality of life (QOL) and psychological functioning. It is not clear if ethnic differences exist in factors associated with psychological well-being. We examined psychosocial factors associated with depression and anxiety in 97 HF patients. Medical records were reviewed and patients (M age 53, 50% African American) completed surveys examining social support, coping, spirituality, and QOL for their association with depression and anxiety. Multiple regressions suggested that psychosocial factors were associated with psychological health. Patients with lower social support, lower meaning/peace and more negative coping reported greater depression; positive coping, and lower meaning/peace were associated with higher anxiety. Ethnicity stratified models suggested that spiritual well-being was associated with depression only among African Americans and QOL partially mediated this relationship. Findings suggest the importance of considering the unique psychosocial needs of diverse populations to appropriately target clinical interventions.
    Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing 12/2009; 24(4):131-40.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 64 elderly individuals presenting with cognitive decline were administered a test of general intelligence and a measure of adaptive knowledge and daily living skills. Premorbid ability was estimated using a demographic formula and a reading test. After controlling for age and depression, general intellectual ability accounted for a large amount of the variance in a broad range of adaptive knowledge and behavioral skills, reflecting the influence of premorbid ability and especially estimated decline. Different patterns of adaptive knowledge and skills were identified as a function of measured IQ and of estimated decline in IQ. Results suggest a threshold of intellectual decline for deterioration in daily living skills. Studies purporting to demonstrate that impairments in particular neuropsychological domains predict specific functional deficits need to control for general intellectual ability and/or the extent of intellectual decline.
    The Clinical Neuropsychologist 09/2009; 24(1):80-94. · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) have impaired driving skills, but association of MHE with motor vehicle crashes is unclear. Standard psychometric tests (SPT) or inhibitory control test (ICT) can be used to diagnose MHE. The aim was to determine the association of MHE with crashes and traffic violations over the preceding year and on 1-year follow-up. Patients with cirrhosis were diagnosed with MHE by ICT (MHEICT) and SPT (MHESPT). Self and department-of-transportation (DOT)-reports were used to determine crashes and violations over the preceding year. Agreement between self and DOT-reports was analyzed. Patients then underwent 1-year follow-up for crash/violation occurrence. Crashes in those with/without MHEICT and MHESPT were compared. 167 patients with cirrhosis had DOT-reports, of which 120 also had self-reports. A significantly higher proportion of MHEICT patients with cirrhosis experienced crashes in the preceding year compared to those without MHE by self-report (17% vs 0.0%, P = 0.0004) and DOT-reports (17% vs 3%, P = 0.004, relative risk: 5.77). SPT did not differentiate between those with/without crashes. A significantly higher proportion of patients with crashes had MHEICT compared to MHESPT, both self-reported (100% vs 50%, P = 0.03) and DOT-reported (89% vs 44%, P = 0.01). There was excellent agreement between self and DOT-reports for crashes and violations (Kappa 0.90 and 0.80). 109 patients were followed prospectively. MHEICT patients had a significantly higher future crashes/violations compared to those without (22% vs 7%, P = 0.03) but MHESPT did not. MHEICT (Odds ratio: 4.51) and prior year crash/violation (Odds ratio: 2.96) were significantly associated with future crash/violation occurrence. CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis and MHEICT have a significantly higher crash rate over the preceding year and on prospective follow-up compared to patients without MHE. ICT, but not SPT performance is significantly associated with prior and future crashes and violations. There was an excellent agreement between self- and DOT-reports.
    Hepatology 07/2009; 50(4):1175-83. · 12.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatic encephalopathy, both overt (OHE) and minimal (MHE), is associated with poor quality of life and fatigue. The aim of this study was to define the effect of fatigue on driving skills in MHE and OHE patients. Cirrhotics and age/education-matched controls were administered a psychometric battery of tests to diagnose MHE. Cirrhotics with recent OHE on lactulose were also included. All subjects underwent a driving simulation; to assess fatigue, the second half performance was compared with the first half of the simulation. The outcomes were collisions, speeding, road excursions, and center crossings. Actual driving-associated fatigue was assessed by the American Medical Association (AMA) driver survey. A total of 100 cirrhotics (51 MHE, 27 no MHE, and 22 OHE) and 67 controls were included. A significantly higher proportion of OHE and MHE patients admitted to fatigue after actual driving on the AMA survey compared with no MHE patients (P=0.02). All patients who admitted to fatigue and none who denied fatigue on the AMA survey had simulator collisions. Psychometric and simulator performance in treated OHE patients was similarly impaired to MHE patients despite therapy. Within groups, a significant increase in collisions, speeding, and center crossings in the second half (P=0.01) was seen only in MHE patients. Psychometric and simulator performance in patients with recent OHE on treatment is similarly impaired as that of untreated MHE patients. Simulator performance in MHE worsens over time with fatigue. OHE and MHE patients had a higher rate of actual driving-associated fatigue on the AMA survey, which was significantly predictive of simulator collisions.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2009; 104(4):898-905. · 9.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate whether patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) were suffering from emotional distress related to the recent United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recalls, to better understand their decision process related to device replacement, and to assess any impact of recall on quality of life (QOL). Thirty-one patients experiencing device recalls answered questions regarding their knowledge about the recall and their decision whether to replace the device. Fifty patients whose devices were not recalled reported demographic data. In both groups, psychological factors were assessed. No significant differences were found for psychological factors. Most patients reported being informed of their recall by their physician. Most estimated the risk of device failure to be low or very low, but they overestimated the fail rate. Thirty-six per cent of patients reported feeling anxious about the recall. No significant differences existed in psychological factors and QOL between patients whose ICDs were recalled compared with those whose devices were not. The majority of patients whose ICDs are the subject of an FDA advisory/recall have a realistic understanding of the risks of device failure. Prompt information, support, and reassurance provided by healthcare professionals may allay patient distress.
    Europace 06/2008; 10(5):540-4. · 2.77 Impact Factor