Sarah M Butler

University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States

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Publications (5)10.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Adult female Musca domestica L. were collected in 2004 and 2005 from dairies in California, Minnesota, and Georgia. Relative abundance of (Z)-9-tricosene (muscalure) among the dominant eight hydrocarbons was determined. Fly heads then were removed to quantify pterin levels and estimate fly age, abdomens were dissected to score gonotrophic development and parity (follicular relics), and spermathecae were examined for sperm. Daily survival was assessed using two estimates of time required to become gravid: laboratory-based degree-day (DD) estimates and estimates based on pterin values in field-collected flies matched to their stages of gonotrophic development. Among newly emerged females (oocyte stage 1) with detectable muscalure, it comprised < approximately 1.5% of cuticular hydrocarbons. In muscalure-positive flies, muscalure comprised a higher proportion of cuticular hydrocarbons in older flies from California and Minnesota (6-9% when gravid) versus flies from Georgia (<2% when gravid). Females mated in early-intermediate stages of egg development. Life expectancy, using laboratory-derived estimates of time needed to become gravid, ranged from 3.6 to 10.6 d. Using equivalent pterin-based time estimates, life expectancy ranged from 4.0 to 19.5 d. Mean DD ages (12 degrees C threshold) of gravid flies varied widely (53-95 DD) and were congruent with laboratory-based estimates (52-57 DD) in only 7 of 12 farm-year combinations. Thus, house flies under natural conditions often required more time to develop eggs than laboratory models would predict, extending daily survival estimates based on gonotrophic age by 11-74%.
    Journal of Medical Entomology 07/2013; 50(4):748-57. · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Sarah M Butler, Bradley A Mullens
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    ABSTRACT: The number of adult male and female house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene alone (5, 50, or 100 micdrol) or combined (50 microl) with sugar was determined using conical screened traps on a dairy in southern California. Overall, significantly more males than females were collected in the traps. Significantly more flies (male and female) were collected in traps with (Z)-9-tricosene. There were no significant differences among doses of (Z)-9-tricosene alone, but numbers of both sexes were significantly higher in traps baited with (Z)-9-tricosene and sugar compared with the 5- and 50-microl doses without sugar. The age of female flies collected in traps was determined by pterin analysis. Mean female ages ranged from 94.7 to 99.6 degree-days (6.3-6.8 d of age) and did not differ significantly among treatments. Dissections of a subset of females from each treatment determined that collected females were primarily nongravid (86.3%). Proportions of gravid females that were collected did not differ among treatments.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 10/2010; 103(5):1929-36. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: House flies, Musca domestica L., were collected in copula over two summers from six dairies located in three climatically distinct regions in the U.S.A. southern California, Minnesota and Georgia. Ages of males and females from a total of 511 mating pairs were estimated using pterin analysis. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and gonotrophic ages of females also were evaluated. Mean age of mating males ranged from 54 to 102 degree-days (DD) (4-10 days based on field air temperatures), depending on the farm. Very young males (< 10-20 DD) and old males (> 200 DD) were rare in mating pairs. Mean female age at mating ranged from 20 to 46 DD (2.5-4 days). All mating females had eggs in the early stages of vitellogenesis and 99.2% were nulliparous. However, some older and parous females were collected, demonstrating that re-mating can occur in the field. Head width measurements of mating pairs suggested that assortative mating by size did not occur. The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of females were determined, with emphasis on (Z)-9-tricosene (muscalure). Overall, only 55% of mating females had detectable amounts (> 4 etag per fly) of (Z)-9-tricosene. Of the females that had detectable (Z)-9-tricosene, variation in amount per female was high in all fly populations, and thus was not statistically related to the size or age of the mating female. The proportion of mating females with detectable levels of (Z)-9-tricosene varied by geographic region. Seventy-one, 63, and 27% of females from southern California, Minnesota and Georgia had detectable amounts of (Z)-9-tricosene. Principal components analysis of the eight most abundant hydrocarbons from mating females, by state, revealed state-level distinctiveness of hydrocarbons in house fly populations, which may reflect genetic variation associated with environmental stresses in those geographical zones.
    Medical and Veterinary Entomology 12/2009; 23(4):426-42. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Straight-chain, saturated fatty acids (particularly C8, C9 and C10) have some known behavioral effects on insects such as mosquitoes, and were tested in combination for potential repellency/antifeedant activity in bioassays against three significant muscoid flies of medical/veterinary importance: houseflies, horn flies and stable flies. Mixtures of C8, C9 and C10 (1:1:1; 15% total actives in formulation) were highly repellent to houseflies and horn flies at or below 1 mg formulation cm(-2). Repellency time varied from < 1 day for houseflies to usually at least 3 days for horn flies. Individual longer-chain-length fatty acids were tested, and C11 repelled houseflies for up to 5-8 days, while C12 lasted 2 days. Minimum statistically significant repellency levels of the C8, C9 and C10 mixture (3 h after application) against horn flies were 0.06-0.12 mg cm(-2). A liquid formulation of the 15% C8, C9 and C10 mixture in a silicone oil carrier (at 2.8 mg AI cm(-2)) was highly repellent against hungry stable flies in a blood-feeding membrane bioassay for at least 8 h. The low toxicity and reasonable activity and persistence of these carboxylic acids make them good candidates for development as protective materials against pest flies in livestock settings.
    Pest Management Science 09/2009; 65(12):1360-6. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    Sarah M Butler, Alec C Gerry, Bradley A Mullens
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    ABSTRACT: Sticky card captures of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), were used to compare efficacy of screen-covered baits containing sugar, sugar and 0.1% (Z)-9-tricosene, sugar and 1.0% (Z)-9-tricosene, Golden Malrin [1.1% methomyl and 0.049% (Z)-9-tricosene], and Quick-Bayt [0.5% imidacloprid and 0.1% (Z)-9-tricosene]. The QuickBayt treatment caught more flies per hour (mean = 116.5) than sugar alone (mean = 81.0), but the addition of (Z)-9-tricosene to sugar did not increase fly capture compared with sugar alone. More males (65% of total) than females were collected on the sticky cards for all treatments. Fly kill by plain sugar (control) and the commercial baits Golden Malrin, QuikStrike Fly Abatement strips (1.0% nithiazine), and QuickBayt was tested over a 90-min period. An average of 1.4, 5.6, 363.0, and 1,266.0 flies were killed using sugar, Golden Malrin, QuikStrike, and QuickBayt, respectively. The similarity between Golden Malrin and plain sugar reflects severe resistance to this once effective methomyl bait. A no-choice feeding assay using lab-reared methomyl-susceptible and methomyl-resistant house flies was conducted with and without (Z)-9-tricosene. Adult mortality was significantly higher in the methomyl-susceptible strain exposed to treatments containing methomyl. Lower consumption of the methomyl treatments by resistant flies suggested resistance was behavioral and mortality was not influenced by (Z)-9-tricosene for either fly strain.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 09/2007; 100(4):1489-95. · 1.60 Impact Factor