[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a randomized, double-blind study, 202 healthy adults were randomized to receive a live, attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) and placebo 28 days apart in a cross-over design. A subgroup of 98 volunteers received a JE-CV booster at month 6. Safety, immunogenicity, and persistence of antibodies to month 60 were evaluated. There were no unexpected adverse events (AEs) and the incidence of AEs between JE-CV and placebo were similar. There were three serious adverse events (SAE) and no deaths. A moderately severe case of acute viral illness commencing 39 days after placebo administration was the only SAE considered possibly related to immunization. 99% of vaccine recipients achieved a seroprotective antibody titer ≥ 10 to JE-CV 28 days following the single dose of JE-CV, and 97% were seroprotected at month 6. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that after a single dose of JE-CV, 87% of the participants who were seroprotected at month 6 were still protected at month 60. This rate was 96% among those who received a booster immunization at month 6. 95% of subjects developed a neutralizing titer ≥ 10 against at least three of the four strains of a panel of wild-type Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains on day 28 after immunization. At month 60, that proportion was 65% for participants who received a single dose of JE-CV and 75% for the booster group. These results suggest that JE-CV is safe, well tolerated and that a single dose provides long-lasting immunity to wild-type strains.
Human vaccines 12/2010; 6(12):1038-46. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A randomized, double-blind, study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) co-administered with live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D strain; Stamaril®, Sanofi Pasteur) or administered successively. Participants (n = 108) were randomized to receive: YF followed by JE-CV 30 days later, JE followed by YF 30 days later, or the co-administration of JE and YF followed or preceded by placebo 30 days later or earlier. Placebo was used in a double-dummy fashion to ensure masking. Neutralizing antibody titers against JE-CV, YF-17D and selected wild-type JE strains was determined using a 50% serum-dilution plaque reduction neutralization test. Seroconversion was defined as the appearance of a neutralizing antibody titer above the assay cut-off post-immunization when not present pre-injection at day 0, or a least a four-fold rise in neutralizing antibody titer measured before the pre-injection day 0 and later post vaccination samples. There were no serious adverse events. Most adverse events (AEs) after JE vaccination were mild to moderate in intensity, and similar to those reported following YF vaccination. Seroconversion to JE-CV was 100% and 91% in the JE/YF and YF/JE sequential vaccination groups, respectively, compared with 96% in the co-administration group. All participants seroconverted to YF vaccine and retained neutralizing titers above the assay cut-off at month six. Neutralizing antibodies against JE vaccine were detected in 82-100% of participants at month six. These results suggest that both vaccines may be successfully co-administered simultaneously or 30 days apart.
Human vaccines 11/2010; 6(11):906-14. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study represents the first phase III trial of the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of tafenoquine for malaria prophylaxis. In a randomized (3:1), double-blinded study, Australian soldiers received weekly malaria prophylaxis with 200 mg tafenoquine (492 subjects) or 250 mg mefloquine (162 subjects) for 6 months on a peacekeeping deployment to East Timor. After returning to Australia, tafenoquine-receiving subjects received a placebo and mefloquine-receiving subjects received 30 mg primaquine daily for 14 days. There were no clinically significant differences between hematological and biochemical parameters of the treatment groups. Treatment-related adverse events for the two groups were similar (tafenoquine, 13.4%; mefloquine, 11.7%). Three subjects on tafenoquine (0.6%) and none on mefloquine discontinued prophylaxis because of possible drug-related adverse events. No diagnoses of malaria occurred for either group during deployment, but 4 cases (0.9%) and 1 case (0.7%) of Plasmodium vivax infection occurred among the tafenoquine and mefloquine groups, respectively, up to 20 weeks after discontinuation of medication. In a subset of subjects recruited for detailed safety assessments, treatment-related mild vortex keratopathy was detected in 93% (69 of 74) of tafenoquine subjects but none of the 21 mefloquine subjects. The vortex keratopathy was not associated with any effect on visual acuity and was fully resolved in all subjects by 1 year. Tafenoquine appears to be safe and well tolerated as malaria prophylaxis. Although the volunteers' precise exposure to malaria could not be proven in this study, tafenoquine appears to be a highly efficacious drug for malaria prophylaxis.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2009; 54(2):792-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine were studied in Australian soldiers taking tafenoquine for malarial prophylaxis. The subjects (476 males and 14 females) received a loading dose of 200 mg tafenoquine base daily for 3 days, followed by a weekly dose of 200 mg tafenoquine for 6 months. Blood samples were collected from each subject after the last loading dose and then at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Plasma tafenoquine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Population modeling was performed with NONMEM, using a one-compartment model. Typical values of the first-order absorption rate constant (K(a)), clearance (CL/F), and volume of distribution (V/F) were 0.243 h(-1), 0.056 liters/h/kg, and 23.7 liters/kg, respectively. The intersubject variability (coefficient of variation) in CL/F and V/F was 18% and 22%, respectively. The interoccasion variability in CL/F was 18%, and the mean elimination half-life was 12.7 days. A positive linear association between weight and both CL/F and V/F was found, but this had insufficient impact to warrant dosage adjustments. Model robustness was assessed by a nonparametric bootstrap (200 samples). A degenerate visual predictive check indicated that the raw data mirrored the postdose concentration-time profiles simulated (n = 1,000) from the final model. Individual pharmacokinetic estimates for tafenoquine did not predict the prophylactic outcome with the drug for four subjects who relapsed with Plasmodium vivax malaria, as they had similar pharmacokinetics to those who were free of malaria infection. No obvious pattern existed between the plasma tafenoquine concentration and the pharmacokinetic parameter values for subjects with and without drug-associated moderate or severe adverse events. This validated population pharmacokinetic model satisfactorily describes the disposition and variability of tafenoquine used for long-term malaria prophylaxis in a large cohort of soldiers on military deployment.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2007; 51(8):2709-15. · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Australian mosquitoes from which Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has been recovered (Culex annulirostris, Culex gelidus, and Aedes vigilax) were assessed for their ability to be infected with the ChimeriVax-JE vaccine, with yellow fever vaccine virus 17D (YF 17D) from which the backbone of ChimeriVax-JE vaccine is derived and with JEV-Nakayama. None of the mosquitoes became infected after being fed orally with 6.1 log(10) plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL of ChimeriVax-JE vaccine, which is greater than the peak viremia in vaccinees (mean peak viremia = 4.8 PFU/mL, range = 0-30 PFU/mL of 0.9 days mean duration, range = 0-11 days). Some members of all three species of mosquito became infected when fed on JEV-Nakayama, but only Ae. vigilax was infected when fed on YF 17D. The results suggest that none of these three species of mosquito are likely to set up secondary cycles of transmission of ChimeriVax-JE in Australia after feeding on a viremic vaccinee.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 11/2006; 75(4):659-63. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of dengue due to dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) occurred almost simultaneously in 2001 in Myanmar and at multiple sites almost 10,000 km away in the Pacific. Phylogenetic analyses of the E protein genes of DENV-1 strains recovered from Asia and the Pacific revealed three major viral genotypes (I, II, and III) with distinct clades within each. The majority of strains from the Pacific and Myanmar, and a number of other Asian strains fell into genotype I. Genotype II comprised a smaller set of Asian and Pacific strains, while genotype III contained viruses from diverse geographical localities. These analyses suggested that the continuing outbreak of dengue in the Pacific has been due to multiple, direct, introductions of dengue viruses from a variety of locations in Asia followed by local transmission. There was no evidence that the introduction of these viruses into the Pacific was associated with any adaptive changes in the E protein of the viruses.