Jay D Steinkruger

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, MS, United States

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Publications (8)70.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Surface-bound polypeptides and proteins are increasingly used to functionalize inorganic interfaces such as electrodes, but their structural characterization is exceedingly difficult with standard technologies. In this paper, we report the first two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) spectra of a peptide monolayer, which is collected by adding a mid-IR pulse shaper to a standard femtosecond SFG spectrometer. On a gold surface, standard FTIR spectroscopy is inconclusive about the peptide structure because of solvation-induced frequency shifts, but the 2D lineshapes, anharmonic shifts, and lifetimes obtained from 2D SFG reveal that the peptide is largely α-helical and upright. Random coil residues are also observed, which do not themselves appear in SFG spectra due to their isotropic structural distribution, but which still absorb infrared light and so can be detected by cross-peaks in 2D SFG spectra. We discuss these results in the context of peptide design. Because of the similar way in which the spectra are collected, these 2D SFG spectra can be directly compared to 2D IR spectra, thereby enabling structural interpretations of surface-bound peptides and biomolecules based on the well-studied structure/2D IR spectra relationships established from soluble proteins.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 12/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pairing preferences in heterodimeric coiled coils are determined by complementarities among side chains that pack against one another at the helix-helix interface. However, relationships between dimer stability and interfacial residue identity are not fully understood. In the context of the "knobs-into-holes" (KIH) packing pattern, one can identify two classes of interactions between side chains from different helices: "lateral", in which a line connecting the adjacent side chains is perpendicular to the helix axes, and "vertical", in which the connecting line is parallel to the helix axes. We have previously analyzed vertical interactions in antiparallel coiled coils and found that one type of triad constellation (a'-a-a') exerts a strong effect on pairing preferences, while the other type of triad (d'-d-d') has relatively little impact on pairing tendencies. Here, we ask whether vertical interactions (d'-a-d') influence pairing in parallel coiled-coil dimers. Our results indicate that vertical interactions can exert a substantial impact on pairing specificity, and that the influence of the d'-a-d' triad depends on the lateral a' contact within the local KIH motif. Structure-informed bioinformatic analyses of protein sequences reveal trends consistent with the thermodynamic data derived from our experimental model system in suggesting that heterotriads involving Leu and Ile are preferred over homotriads involving Leu and Ile.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2012; 134(38):15652-5. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elucidating relationships between the amino-acid sequences of proteins and their three-dimensional structures, and uncovering non-covalent interactions that underlie polypeptide folding, are major goals in protein science. One approach toward these goals is to study interactions between selected residues, or among constellations of residues, in small folding motifs. The α-helical coiled coil has served as a platform for such studies because this folding unit is relatively simple in terms of both sequence and structure. Amino acid side chains at the helix-helix interface of a coiled coil participate in so-called "knobs-into-holes" (KIH) packing whereby a side chain (the knob) on one helix inserts into a space (the hole) generated by four side chains on a partner helix. The vast majority of sequence-stability studies on coiled-coil dimers have focused on lateral interactions within these KIH arrangements, for example, between an a position on one helix and an a' position of the partner in a parallel coiled-coil dimer, or between a--d' pairs in an antiparallel dimer. More recently, it has been shown that vertical triads (specifically, a'--a--a' triads) in antiparallel dimers exert a significant impact on pairing preferences. This observation provides impetus for analysis of other complex networks of side-chain interactions at the helix-helix interface. Here, we describe a combination of experimental and bioinformatics studies that show that d'--d--d' triads have much less impact on pairing preference than do a'--a--a' triads in a small, designed antiparallel coiled-coil dimer. However, the influence of the d'--d--d' triad depends on the lateral a'--d interaction. Taken together, these results strengthen the emerging understanding that simple pairwise interactions are not sufficient to describe side-chain interactions and overall stability in antiparallel coiled-coil dimers; higher-order interactions must be considered as well.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2012; 134(5):2626-33. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 08/2011; 50(37):8735-8. · 13.73 Impact Factor
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    Jay D Steinkruger, Derek N Woolfson, Samuel H Gellman
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    ABSTRACT: A new strategy for rapid evaluation of sequence-stability relationships in the parallel coiled-coil motif is described. The experimental design relies upon thiol-thioester exchange equilibria, an approach that is particularly well suited to examination of heterodimeric systems. Our model system has been benchmarked by demonstrating that it can quantitatively reproduce previously reported trends in interhelical a-a' side-chain pairing preferences at the coiled-coil interface. This new tool has been used to explore the role of Coulombic interactions between a core position on one helix and a flanking position on the other helix (a-g'). This type of interhelical contact has received relatively little attention to date. Our results indicate that such interactions can influence coiled-coil partner preferences.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 06/2010; 132(22):7586-8. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 12/2009; 49(2):368-71. · 13.73 Impact Factor
  • Angewandte Chemie. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Polymerization of L-lactide within the pores of anorganic mammalian bone is described. No additional solvent or catalyst is used. The resulting composites exhibit macroscopic morphologies and mechanical properties similar to that of the original bone. We observe an average compressive strength of 194 MPa and an elastic modulus of 8.8 GPa for composites comprised of poly-L-lactide and anorganic bone derived from bovine femurs. Modeling of the reaction kinetics with synthetic sources of crystalline hydroxyapatite powder suggests that polymerization proceeds via a surface-initiated mechanism that is first order in surface area of hydroxyapatite and first order in mole fraction of L-lactide.
    Chemistry of Materials - CHEM MATER. 07/2008; 20(15).