Ulrich Broeckel

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (104)659.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although the field of pharmacogenetics has existed for decades, practioners have been slow to implement pharmacogenetic testing in clinical care. Numerous publications describe the barriers to clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics. Recently, several freely available resources have been developed to help address these barriers. In this review, we discuss current programs that use preemptive genotyping to optimize the pharmacotherapy of patients. Array-based preemptive testing includes a large number of relevant pharmacogenes that impact multiple high-risk drugs. Using a preemptive approach allows genotyping results to be available prior to any prescribing decision so that genomic variation may be considered as an inherent patient characteristic in the planning of therapy. This review describes the common elements among programs that have implemented preemptive genotyping and highlights key processes for implementation, including clinical decision support. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 55 is January 06, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a father and his two daughters diagnosed with Klippel–Feil syndrome (KFS) but with craniofacial differences (zygomatic and mandibular hypoplasia and cleft palate) and external ear abnormalities suggestive of Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The diagnosis of KFS was favored, given that the neck anomalies were the predominant manifestations, and that the diagnosis predated later recognition of the association between spinal segmentation abnormalities and TCS. Genetic heterogeneity and the rarity of large families with KFS have limited the ability to identify mutations by traditional methods. Whole exome sequencing identified a nonsynonymous mutation in POLR1D (subunit of RNA polymerase I and II): exon2:c.T332C:p.L111P. Mutations in POLR1D are present in about 5% of individuals diagnosed with TCS. We propose that this mutation is causal in this family, suggesting a pathogenetic link between KFS and TCS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 10/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explored the impact of obesity, body composition, and genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of daunorubicin in children with cancer.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 08/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to describe the association between voriconazole concentrations and CYP2C19 diplotypes in pediatric cancer patients, including children homozygous for the CYP2C19*17 gain-of-function allele.
    Pharmacogenomics 06/2014; 15(8):1065-78. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacogenetics is frequently cited as an area for initial focus of the clinical implementation of genomics. Through the PG4KDS protocol, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital pre-emptively genotypes patients for 230 genes using the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array supplemented with a CYP2D6 copy number assay. The PG4KDS protocol provides a rational, stepwise process for implementing gene/drug pairs, organizing data, and obtaining consent from patients and families. Through August 2013, 1,559 patients have been enrolled, and four gene tests have been released into the electronic health record (EHR) for clinical implementation: TPMT, CYP2D6, SLCO1B1, and CYP2C19. These genes are coupled to 12 high-risk drugs. Of the 1,016 patients with genotype test results available, 78% of them had at least one high-risk (i.e., actionable) genotype result placed in their EHR. Each diplotype result released to the EHR is coupled with an interpretive consult that is created in a concise, standardized format. To support-gene based prescribing at the point of care, 55 interruptive clinical decision support (CDS) alerts were developed. Patients are informed of their genotyping result and its relevance to their medication use through a letter. Key elements necessary for our successful implementation have included strong institutional support, a knowledgeable clinical laboratory, a process to manage any incidental findings, a strategy to educate clinicians and patients, a process to return results, and extensive use of informatics, especially CDS. Our approach to pre-emptive clinical pharmacogenetics has proven feasible, clinically useful, and scalable. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Seminars in Medical Genetics 03/2014; · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and heart failure. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) and the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the ability to comprehensively study cardiac hypertrophy on a gene regulatory level is impacted by the limited availability of human cardiomyocytes. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) offer the opportunity for disease modeling. Here we utilize a previously established in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy to interrogate the regulatory mechanism associated with the cardiac disease process. We perform miRNA sequencing and mRNA expression analysis on endothelin 1 (ET-1) stimulated hiPSC-CMs to describe associated RNA expression profiles. MicroRNA sequencing revealed over 250 known and 34 predicted novel miRNAs to be differentially expressed between ET-1 stimulated and unstimulated control hiPSC-CMs. Messenger RNA expression analysis identified 731 probe sets with significant differential expression. Computational target prediction on significant differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs identified nearly 2000 target pairs. A principal component analysis approach comparing the in vitro data with human myocardial biopsies detected overlapping expression changes between the in vitro samples and myocardial biopsies with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. These results provide further insights into the complex RNA regulatory mechanism associated with cardiac hypertrophy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e108051. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Active clinical decision support (CDS) delivered through an electronic health record (EHR) facilitates gene-based drug prescribing and other applications of genomics to patient care. We describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of active CDS for multiple pharmacogenetic test results reported preemptively. Clinical pharmacogenetic test results accompanied by clinical interpretations are placed into the patient's EHR, typically before a relevant drug is prescribed. Problem list entries created for high-risk phenotypes provide an unambiguous trigger for delivery of post-test alerts to clinicians when high-risk drugs are prescribed. In addition, pre-test alerts are issued if a very-high risk medication is prescribed (eg, a thiopurine), prior to the appropriate pharmacogenetic test result being entered into the EHR. Our CDS can be readily modified to incorporate new genes or high-risk drugs as they emerge. Through November 2012, 35 customized pharmacogenetic rules have been implemented, including rules for TPMT with azathioprine, thioguanine, and mercaptopurine, and for CYP2D6 with codeine, tramadol, amitriptyline, fluoxetine, and paroxetine. Between May 2011 and November 2012, the pre-test alerts were electronically issued 1106 times (76 for thiopurines and 1030 for drugs metabolized by CYP2D6), and the post-test alerts were issued 1552 times (1521 for TPMT and 31 for CYP2D6). Analysis of alert outcomes revealed that the interruptive CDS appropriately guided prescribing in 95% of patients for whom they were issued. Our experience illustrates the feasibility of developing computational systems that provide clinicians with actionable alerts for gene-based drug prescribing at the point of care.
    Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 08/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7×10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept that there are fat distribution loci that are independent of generalized adiposity.
    PLoS Genetics 08/2013; 9(8):e1003681. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many lines of evidence demonstrate that genetic variability contributes to chronic kidney disease susceptibility in humans as well as rodent models. Little progress has been made in discovering causal kidney disease genes in humans mainly due to genetic complexity. Here, we use a minimal congenic mapping strategy in the FHH (Fawn Hooded Hypertensive) rat to identify Sorcs1 as a novel renal disease candidate gene. We investigated the hypothesis that genetic variation in Sorcs1 influences renal disease susceptibility in both rat and human. Sorcs1 is expressed in the kidney, and knocking out this gene in a rat strain with a sensitized genome background produced increased proteinuria. In vitro knockdown of Sorcs1 in proximal tubule cells impaired protein trafficking, suggesting a mechanism for the observed proteinuria in the FHH rat. Since Sorcs1 influences renal function in the rat, we went on to test this gene in humans. We identified associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SORCS1 and renal function in large cohorts of European and African ancestry. The experimental data from the rat combined with association results from different ethnic groups indicates a role for SORCS1 in maintaining proper renal function.
    Physiological Genomics 06/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) represent severe developmental ocular malformations. Currently, mutations in known genes explain less than 40% of A/M cases. We performed whole genome copy number variation analysis in sixty patients affected with isolated or syndromic A/M. Pathogenic deletions of 3q26 (SOX2) were identified in four independent patients with syndromic microphthalmia. Other variants of interest included regions with a known role in human disease (likely pathogenic) as well as novel rearrangements (uncertain significance). A 2.2-Mb duplication of 3q29 in a patient with nonsyndromic anophthalmia and an 877-kb duplication of 11p13 (PAX6) and a 1.4-Mb deletion of 17q11.2 (NF1) in two independent probands with syndromic microphthalmia and other ocular defects were identified; while ocular anomalies have been previously associated with 3q29 duplications, PAX6 duplications, and NF1 mutations in some cases, the ocular phenotypes observed here are more severe than previously reported. Three novel regions of possible interest included a 2q14.2 duplication which cosegregated with microphthalmia/microcornea and congenital cataracts in one family, and 2q21 and 15q26 duplications in two additional cases; each of these regions contains genes that are active during vertebrate ocular development. Overall, this study identified causative copy number mutations and regions with a possible role in ocular disease in 17% of A/M cases.
    Clinical Genetics 05/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an aberration associated with increased risk for cancer and inflammation. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-produced abundant protein hormone, has countering effect on the diabetogenic and atherogenic components of MetS. Plasma levels of adiponectin are negatively correlated with onset of cancer and cancer patient mortality. We previously performed microsatellite linkage analyses using adiponectin as a surrogate marker and revealed two QTLs on chr5 (5p14) and chr14 (14q13). METHODS: Using individuals from 85 extended families that contributed to the linkage and who were measured for 42 clinical and biologic MetS phenotypes, we tested QTL-based SNP associations, peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) gene expression, and the effects of cis-acting SNPs on gene expression to discover genomic elements that could affect the pathophysiology and complications of MetS. RESULTS: Adiponectin levels were found to be highly intercorrelated phenotypically with the majority of MetS traits. QTL-specific haplotype-tagging SNPs associated with MetS phenotypes were annotated to 14 genes whose function could influence MetS biology as well as oncogenesis or inflammation. These were mechanistically categorized into four groups: cell-cell adhesion and mobility, signal transduction, transcription and protein sorting. Four genes were highly prioritized: cadherin 18 (CDH18), myosin X (MYO10), anchor protein 6 of AMPK (AKAP6), and neuronal PAS domain protein 3 (NPAS3). PWBC expression was detectable only for the following genes with multi-organ or with multi-function properties: NPAS3, MARCH6, MYO10 and FBXL7. Strong evidence of cis-effects on the expression of MYO10 in PWBC was found with SNPs clustered near the gene's transcription start site. MYO10 expression in PWBC was marginally correlated with body composition (p= 0.065) and adipokine levels in the periphery (p = 0.064). Variants of genes AKAP6, NPAS3, MARCH6 and FBXL7 have been previously reported to be associated with insulin resistance, inflammatory markers or adiposity studies using genome-wide approaches whereas associations of CDH18 and MYO10 with MetS traits have not been reported before. CONCLUSIONS: Adiponectin QTLs-based SNP association and mRNA expression identified genes that could mediate the association between MetS and cancer or inflammation.
    BMC Medical Genomics 04/2013; 6(1):14. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one new locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, P = 3.4 × 10-11) and another at 7p15 when we included data from the GIANT consortium (MIR148A-NFE2L3, rs10261878, P = 1.2 × 10-10). We also found suggestive evidence of an association at a third locus at 6q16 in the African-ancestry sample (KLHL32, rs974417, P = 6.9 × 10-8). Thirty-two of the 36 previously established BMI variants showed directionally consistent effect estimates in our GWAS (binomial P = 9.7 × 10-7), five of which reached genome-wide significance. These findings provide strong support for shared BMI loci across populations, as well as for the utility of studying ancestrally diverse populations.
    Nature Genetics 04/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)is a phenotype cluster predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In extended families of Northern European ancestry, we previously identified two significant QTLs 3q27 and 17p12 that werelinked with multiple representative traits of MetS. Todetermine the genetic basis of these linkage signals, QTL-specific genomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed in 1,137 individuals from 85 extended families that contributed to the original linkage.We tested in SOLAR association of MetS phenotypes with QTL-specific haplotype-tagging SNPs as well as transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). SNPs significantly associated with phenotypes under the prior hypothesis of linkage mapped to seven genes at 3q27 and seven at 17p12. Prioritization based on biologic relevance, SNP association, and expression analyses identified two genes: insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) at 3q27 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 13B (TNFRSF13B) at 17p12.Prioritized genescould influence cell-cell adhesion and adipocyte differentiation, insulin/glucose responsiveness, cytokine effectiveness and plasma lipids and lipoprotein densities. In summary, our results combine genomic, transcriptomic, and bioinformaticdata to identify novel candidate loci for MetS.
    Obesity 02/2013; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) pose a significant health problem because they can be associated with spinal deformities, such as congenital scoliosis and kyphosis, in addition to various syndromes and other congenital malformations. Additional information remains to be learned regarding the natural history of congenital scoliosis and related health problems. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the process of somite formation, which gives rise to vertebral bodies, there is a wide gap in our understanding of how genetic factors contribute to CVM development. Maternal diabetes during pregnancy most commonly contributes to the occurrence of CVM, followed by other factors such as hypoxia and anticonvulsant medications. This review highlights several emerging clinical issues related to CVM, including pulmonary and orthopedic outcome in congenital scoliosis. Recent breakthroughs in genetics related to gene and environment interactions associated with CVM development are discussed. The Klippel-Feil syndrome which is associated with cervical segmentation abnormalities is illustrated as an example in which animal models, such as the zebrafish, can be utilized to provide functional evidence of pathogenicity of identified mutations.
    Molecular syndromology 02/2013; 4(1-2):94-105.
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    ABSTRACT: High blood pressure (BP) is more prevalent and contributes to more severe manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African Americans than in any other United States ethnic group. Several small African-ancestry (AA) BP genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been published, but their findings have failed to replicate to date. We report on a large AA BP GWAS meta-analysis that includes 29,378 individuals from 19 discovery cohorts and subsequent replication in additional samples of AA (n = 10,386), European ancestry (EA) (n = 69,395), and East Asian ancestry (n = 19,601). Five loci (EVX1-HOXA, ULK4, RSPO3, PLEKHG1, and SOX6) reached genome-wide significance (p < 1.0 x 10(-8)) for either systolic or diastolic BP in a transethnic meta-analysis after correction for multiple testing. Three of these BP loci (EVX1-HOXA, RSPO3, and PLEKHG1) lack previous associations with BP. We also identified one independent signal in a known BP locus (SOX6) and provide evidence for fine mapping in four additional validated BP loci. We also demonstrate that validated EA BP GWAS loci, considered jointly, show significant effects in AA samples. Consequently, these findings suggest that BP loci might have universal effects across studied populations, demonstrating that multiethnic samples are an essential component in identifying, fine mapping, and understanding their trait variability.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2013; 93(3):545-54. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with mutations in several genes that have roles in the functioning of Paneth cells (PCs). PCs produce and secrete antimicrobial peptides and proteins, which are critical for host defense against pathogens and regulation of intestinal homeostasis, notably in regulating the composition of the small intestinal biota. We hypothesize that a significant subset of patients with CD carry susceptibility genes that cause PC dysfunction, resulting in decreased expression of PC antimicrobials, leading to intestinal dysbiosis. We tested this by evaluating a cohort of pediatric patients with CD and non-IBD controls, for genotype, PC gene expression, and microbiota composition.METHODS: We recruited patients <19 years age from Children's hospital of Wisconsin. We obtained clinical data for disease phenotyping. We genotyped subjects for known CD susceptibility gene mutations by Immunochip. Total RNA was isolated from biopsy tissue and analyzed by RTqPCR for levels of PC product gene expression, including defensins HD5 and HD6, lysozyme, sPLA2, and RegIIIgamma. We evaluated differences in PC gene expression among patients with CD and non-inflamed controls. We also characterized the ileal microbiota for bacterial composition and diversity using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to determine associations between PC antimicrobial expression and biome composition.RESULTS: We recruited a total of 70 CD patients and 192 non-IBD controls. Control patients skewed younger than disease cohorts. There was male preponderance in CD cohort. Immunochip analysis, subsequently validated by qPCR SNP typing, demonstrated statistically significant correlations between SNP mutations and CD, most notably with the NOD2 insertion mutant (SNP13) (P = 0.0001272). Microbiota analysis showed no significant differences in alpha diversity between control and CD, however there were notable differences in composition. Various sub species of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacterioidetesare all reduced in CD samples compared to Control. Veillonellaceae (Firmicutes), Alcaligenaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pasteurellaceae (Proteobacteria) are all increased in CD samples. PCA analysis suggested that Lachnospira and Enterobacteria are the main determinants of variance, with a smaller contribution by Prevotella. The relative abundance of bacterial families was significantly different in CD patients compared to controls (Adonis analysis, P < 0.001). The abundance of Lachnospiraceae is consistently higher in controls than CD, while the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae is consistently lower in controls than in CD samples. Ileal samples from CD patients show significantly altered expression of HD6, PSP/REG, and Lysozyme, when compared to controls (Kruskal-Wallis Test).CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant correlations between SNP mutations and CD, most notably with the NOD2 insertion mutant (SNP13). The ileal microbiota composition of CD samples differs significantly from control samples. Expression of PC antimicrobial peptides is dysregulated in CD ileal samples compared to controls, with significantly altered expression of human defensin 6, PSP/REG and lysozyme, which may contribute to dysbiosis at the ileal surface. PC morphology and location are abnormal in CD ileal samples compared to controls, which may contribute to abnormalities in mRNA expression.(C) Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2013; 19:S119. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: "Natural" regulatory T cells (nTregs) that express the transcription factor Foxp3 and produce IL-10 are required for systemic immunological tolerance. "Induced" regulatory T cells (iTregs) are nonredundant and essential for tolerance at mucosal surfaces, yet their mechanisms of suppression and stability are unknown. We investigated the role of iTreg-produced IL-10 and iTreg fate in a treatment model of inflammatory bowel disease. Colitis was induced in Rag1(-/-) mice by the adoptive transfer of naive CD4(+) T cells carrying a nonfunctional Foxp3 allele. At the onset of weight loss, mice were treated with both iTregs and nTregs where one marked subset was selectively IL-10 deficient. Body weight assessment, histological scoring, cytokine analysis, and flow cytometry were used to monitor disease activity. Transcriptional profiling and TCR repertoire analysis were used to track cell fate. When nTregs were present but IL-10 deficient, iTreg-produced IL-10 was necessary and sufficient for the treatment of disease, and vice versa. Invariably, ∼85% of the transferred iTregs lost Foxp3 expression (ex-iTregs) but retained a portion of the iTreg transcriptome, which failed to limit their pathogenic potential upon retransfer. TCR repertoire analysis revealed no clonal relationships between iTregs and ex-iTregs, either within mice or between mice treated with the same cells. These data identify a dynamic IL-10-dependent functional reciprocity between regulatory T cell subsets that maintains mucosal tolerance. The niche supporting stable iTregs is limited and readily saturated, which promotes a large population of ex-iTregs with pathogenic potential during immunotherapy.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Ulrich Broeckel, Karen Maresso
    Personalized Medicine 11/2012; 9(8):821-828. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PHACE syndrome is the association of large segmental facial hemangiomas and congenital anomalies, such as posterior fossa malformations, cerebral arterial anomalies, coarctation of the aorta, eye anomalies, and sternal defects. To date, the reported cases of PHACE syndrome have been sporadic, suggesting that PHACE may have a complex pathogenesis. We report here genomic copy number variation (CNV) analysis of 98 individuals with PHACE syndrome as a first step in deciphering a potential genetic basis of PHACE syndrome. A total of 3,772 CNVs (2,507 duplications and 1,265 deletions) were detected in 98 individuals with PHACE syndrome. CNVs were then eliminated if they failed to meet established criteria for quality, spanned centromeres, or did not contain genes. CNVs were defined as "rare" if not documented in the database of genomic variants. Ten rare CNVs were discovered (size range: 134-406 kb), located at 1q32.1, 1q43, 3q26.32-3q26.33, 3p11.1, 7q33, 10q24.32, 12q24.13, 17q11.2, 18p11.31, and Xq28. There were no rare CNV events that occurred in more than one subject. Therefore, further study is needed to determine the significance of these CNVs in the pathogenesis of PHACE syndrome.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 25 October 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.367.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 10/2012; · 6.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
659.20 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Human and Molecular Genetics Center
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • School of Public Health
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
    • University of Colorado
      • Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 2012
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Memphis, TN, United States
  • 2011
    • Children's Hospital of Wisconsin
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 1997–2003
    • Universität Regensburg
      • Lehrstuhl für Innere Medizin II
      Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1998–2000
    • University of Münster
      • Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine
      Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany