Gabriel Núñez

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (337)3157.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Excess iron induces tissue damage and is implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Iron toxicity is widely attributed to hydroxyl radical formation through Fenton's reaction. We report that excess iron, but not other Fenton catalytic metals, induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a pathway also implicated in AMD. Additionally, iron-induced degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is suppressed in mice lacking inflammasome components caspase-1/11 or Nlrp3 or by inhibition of caspase-1. Iron overload increases abundance of RNAs transcribed from short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs): Alu RNAs and the rodent equivalent B1 and B2 RNAs, which are inflammasome agonists. Targeting Alu or B2 RNA prevents iron-induced inflammasome activation and RPE degeneration. Iron-induced SINE RNA accumulation is due to suppression of DICER1 via sequestration of the co-factor poly(C)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2). These findings reveal an unexpected mechanism of iron toxicity, with implications for AMD and neurodegenerative diseases associated with excess iron. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Reports 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.023 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Medical Microbiology 05/2015; 305(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2015.03.007 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Virulence factors expressed by enteric bacteria are pivotal for pathogen colonization and induction of intestinal disease, but the mechanisms by which host immunity regulates pathogen virulence are largely unknown. Here we show that specific antibody responses are required for downregulation of virulence gene expression in Citrobacter rodentium, an enteric pathogen that models human infections with attaching-and-effacing bacteria. In the absence of antibodies against the pathogen, phenotypically virulent C. rodentium, accumulated and infected the epithelium and subsequently invaded the lamina propia, causing host lethality. IgG induced after infection recognized virulence factors and bound virulent bacteria within the intestinal lumen, leading to their engulfment by neutrophils, while phenotypically avirulent pathogens remained in the intestinal lumen and were eventually outcompeted by the microbiota. Thus, the interplay of the innate and adaptive immune system selectively targets virulent C. rodentium in the intestinal lumen to promote pathogen eradication and host survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell host & microbe 04/2015; 17(5). DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2015.04.001 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The microbiota stimulates inflammation, but the signaling pathways and the members of the microbiota involved remain poorly understood. We found that the microbiota induces interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release upon intestinal injury and that this is mediated via the NLRP3 inflammasome. Enterobacteriaceae and in particular the pathobiont Proteus mirabilis, induced robust IL-1β release that was comparable to that induced by the pathogen Salmonella. Upon epithelial injury, production of IL-1β in the intestine was largely mediated by intestinal Ly6C(high) monocytes, required chemokine receptor CCR2 and was abolished by deletion of IL-1β in CCR2(+) blood monocytes. Furthermore, colonization with P. mirabilis promoted intestinal inflammation upon intestinal injury via the production of hemolysin, which required NLRP3 and IL-1 receptor signaling in vivo. Thus, upon intestinal injury, selective members of the microbiota stimulate newly recruited monocytes to induce NLRP3-dependent IL-1β release, which promotes inflammation in the intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Immunity 04/2015; 42(4). DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.03.004 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The NLRP3 inflammasome assembles in response to danger signals, triggering self-cleavage of procaspase-1 and production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Although virus infection activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, the underlying events remain incompletely understood. We report that virus activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome involves the 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase(OAS)/RNase L system, a component of the interferon-induced antiviral response that senses double-stranded RNA and activates endoribonuclease RNase L to cleave viral and cellular RNAs. The absence of RNase L reduces IL-1β production in influenza A virus-infected mice. RNA cleavage products generated by RNase L enhance IL-1β production but require the presence of 2',3'-cyclic phosphorylated termini characteristic of RNase L activity. Additionally, these cleavage products stimulate NLRP3 complex formation with the DExD/H-box helicase, DHX33, and mitochondrial adaptor protein, MAVS, which are each required for effective NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Thus, RNA cleavage events catalyzed by RNase L are required for optimal inflammasome activation during viral infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell host & microbe 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2015.02.010 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain–containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a component of the inflammatory process, and its aberrant activation is pathogenic in inherited disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and atherosclerosis. We describe the development of MCC950, a potent, selective, small-molecule inhibitor of NLRP3. MCC950 blocked canonical and noncanonical NLRP3 activation at nanomolar concentrations. MCC950 specifically inhibited activation of NLRP3 but not the AIM2, NLRC4 or NLRP1 inflammasome. MCC950 reduced interleukin-1b ( IL-1b) production in vivo and attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease model of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, MCC950 treatment rescued neonatal lethality in a mouse model of CAPS and was active in ex vivo samples from individuals with Muckle–Wells syndrome. MCC950 is thus a potential therapeutic for NLRP3-associated syndromes, including autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and a tool for further study of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human health and disease.
    Nature Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1038/nm.3806 · 22.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, commonly recurrent, and costly. Deficiency in a key autophagy protein, ATG16L1, protects mice from infection with the predominant bacterial cause of UTIs, Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Here, we report that loss of ATG16L1 in macrophages accounts for this protective phenotype. Compared with wild-type macrophages, macrophages deficient in ATG16L1 exhibit increased uptake of UPEC and enhanced secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The increased IL-1β production is dependent upon activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1. IL-1β secretion was also enhanced during UPEC infection of ATG16L1-deficient mice in vivo, and inhibition of IL-1β signaling abrogates the ATG16L1-dependent protection from UTIs. Our results argue that ATG16L1 normally suppresses a host-protective IL-1β response to UPEC by macrophages.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 11 February 2015; doi:10.1038/mi.2015.7.
    Mucosal Immunology 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/mi.2015.7 · 7.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins NOD1 and NOD2, the founding members of the intracellular NOD-like receptor family, sense conserved motifs in bacterial peptidoglycan and induce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses. Here, we discuss recent developments about the mechanisms by which NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial ligands, the regulation of their signaling pathways, and their role in host defense and inflammatory disease. Several routes for the entry of peptidoglycan ligands to the host cytosol to trigger activation of NOD1 and NOD2 have been elucidated. Furthermore, genetic screens and biochemical analyses have revealed mechanisms that regulate NOD1 and NOD2 signaling. Finally, recent studies have suggested several mechanisms to account for the link between NOD2 variants and susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Further understanding of NOD1 and NOD2 should provide new insight into the pathogenesis of disease and the development of new strategies to treat inflammatory and infectious disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Immunity 12/2014; 41(6):898-908. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.12.010 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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    Nature Medicine 12/2014; 20(12):1372-5. DOI:10.1038/nm.3671 · 28.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Infection-associated inflammation promotes the development and progression of adverse outcomes in sepsis. The effects of heterodimeric IL-27 (p28/EBI3) have been implicated in the natural course of sepsis, whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of gene expression and release of IL-27 in sepsis are poorly understood. We studied the events regulating the p28 subunit of IL-27 in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture. Neutralizing Abs to IL-27(p28) improved survival rates, restricted cytokine release, and reduced bacterial burden in C57BL/6 mice during sepsis. Genetic disruption of IL-27 signaling enhanced the respiratory burst of macrophages. Experiments using splenectomized mice or treatment with clodronate liposomes suggested that macrophages in the spleen may be a significant source of IL-27(p28) during sepsis. In cultures of TLR4-activated macrophages, the frequency of F4/80(+)CD11b(+)IL-27(p28)(+) cells was reduced by the addition of IL-10. IL-10 antagonized both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent release of IL-27(p28). Genetic deletion of STAT3 in Tie2-Cre/STAT3flox macrophages completely interrupted the inhibition of IL-27(p28) by IL-10 after TLR4 activation. In contrast, IL-10 remained fully active to suppress IL-27(p28) with deletion of SOCS3 in Tie2-Cre/SOCS3flox macrophages. Blockade of IL-10R by Ab or genetic deficiency of IL-10 resulted in 3-5-fold higher concentrations of IL-27(p28) in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis. Our studies identify IL-10 as a critical suppressing factor for IL-27(p28) production during infection-associated inflammation. These findings may be helpful for a beneficial manipulation of adverse IL-27(p28) release during sepsis.
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    ABSTRACT: Pathobionts play a critical role in disease development, but the immune mechanisms against pathobionts remain poorly understood. Here, we report a critical role for interleukin-22 (IL-22) in systemic protection against bacterial pathobionts that translocate into the circulation after infection with the pathogen Clostridium difficile. Infection with C. difficile induced IL-22, and infected Il22(-/-) mice harbored high numbers of pathobionts in extraintestinal organs despite comparable pathogen load and intestinal damage in mutant and wild-type mice. Pathobionts exhibited increased resistant against complement-mediated phagocytosis, and their intravenous administration resulted in high animal mortality. Selective removal of translocated commensals rescued Il22(-/-) mice, and IL-22 administration enhanced the elimination of pathobionts. Mechanistically, IL-22 augmented bacterial phagocytosis by increasing the expression and bacterial binding of complement C3. Our study demonstrates an unexpected role for IL-22 in controlling the elimination of pathobionts that enter the systemic circulation through the regulation of the complement system.
    Immunity 10/2014; 41(4):620-32. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.09.010 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) controls differentiation of long-lived plasma cells, and almost 10% of individuals with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) express either the C104R or A181E variants of TACI. These variants impair TACI function, and TACI-deficient mice exhibit a CVID-like disease. However, 1%-2% of normal individuals harbor the C140R or A181E TACI variants and have no outward signs of CVID, and it is not clear why TACI deficiency in this group does not cause disease. Here, we determined that TACI-deficient mice have low baseline levels of Ig in the blood but retain the ability to mutate Ig-associated genes that encode antigen-specific antibodies. The antigen-specific antibodies in TACI-deficient mice were produced in bursts and had higher avidity than those of WT animals. Moreover, mice lacking TACI were able to clear Citrobacter rodentium, a model pathogen for severe human enteritis, more rapidly than did WT mice. These findings suggest that the high prevalence of TACI deficiency in humans might reflect enhanced host defense against enteritis, which is more severe in those with acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/2014; 124(11). DOI:10.1172/JCI74428 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that activate caspase-1 in response to infections and stress, resulting in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we report that IκB kinase α (IKKα) is a critical negative regulator of apoptosis-associated specklike protein containing a C-terminal caspase-activation-andrecruitment (CARD) domain (ASC)-dependent inflammasomes. IKKα controls the inflammasome at the level of the adaptor ASC, which interacts with IKKα in the nucleus of resting macrophages in an IKKα kinase-dependent manner. Loss of IKKα kinase activity results in inflammasome hyperactivation. Mechanistically, the downstream nuclear effector IKK-related kinase (IKKi) facilitates translocation of ASC from the nucleus to the perinuclear area during inflammasome activation. ASC remains under the control of IKKα in the perinuclear area following translocation of the ASC/IKKα complex. Signal 2 of NLRP3 activation leads to inhibition of IKKα kinase activity through the recruitment of PP2A, allowing ASC to participate in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. Taken together, these findings reveal a IKKi-IKKα-ASC axis that serves as a common regulatory mechanism for ASC-dependent inflammasomes.
    Nature Communications 09/2014; 5:4977. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5977 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. Many bacterial pathogens provoke inflammasome activity and induce inflammatory responses, including cell death, by delivering type III secreted effectors, the rod component flagellin, and toxins. Recent studies indicated that Shigella deploy multiple mechanisms to stimulate NLR inflammasomes through type III secretion during infection. Here, we show that Shigella induces rapid macrophage cell death by delivering the invasion plasmid antigen H7.8 (IpaH7.8) enzyme 3 (E3) ubiquitin ligase effector via the type III secretion system, thereby activating the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasomes and caspase-1 and leading to macrophage cell death in an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent manner. Mice infected with Shigella possessing IpaH7.8, but not with Shigella possessing an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-null mutant, exhibited enhanced bacterial multiplication. We defined glomulin/flagellar-associated protein 68 (GLMN) as an IpaH7.8 target involved in IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent inflammasome activation. This protein originally was identified through its association with glomuvenous malformations and more recently was described as a member of a Cullin ring ligase inhibitor. Modifying GLMN levels through overexpression or knockdown led to reduced or augmented inflammasome activation, respectively. Macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/ATP induced GLMN puncta that localized with the active form of caspase-1. Macrophages from GLMN(+/-) mice were more responsive to inflammasome activation than those from GLMN(+/+) mice. Together, these results highlight a unique bacterial adaptation that hijacks inflammasome activation via interactions between IpaH7.8 and GLMN.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2014; 111(40). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1324021111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as /`accidental cell death/' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with the fact that its course can be altered by pharmacologic or genetic interventions. /`Regulated cell death/' (RCD) can occur as part of physiologic programs or can be activated once adaptive responses to perturbations of the extracellular or intracellular microenvironment fail. The biochemical phenomena that accompany RCD may be harnessed to classify it into a few subtypes, which often (but not always) exhibit stereotyped morphologic features. Nonetheless, efficiently inhibiting the processes that are commonly thought to cause RCD, such as the activation of executioner caspases in the course of apoptosis, does not exert true cytoprotective effects i
    Cell death and differentiation 09/2014; DOI:10.1038/cdd.2014.137 · 8.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome plays an important role in inflammation by controlling the maturation and secretion of the cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in response to multiple stimuli including pore-forming toxins, particulate matter, and ATP. Although the pathways activated by the latter stimuli lead to a decrease in intracellular K(+) concentration, which is required for inflammasome activation, the mechanism by which microbial RNA activates Nlrp3, remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that cytosolic poly(I:C), but not total RNA from healthy macrophages, macrophages undergoing pyroptosis, or mitochondrial RNA, induces caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release through the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Experiments with macrophages deficient in Tlr3, Myd88, or Trif, indicate that poly(I:C) induces Nlrp3 activation independently of TLR signaling. Further analyses revealed that the cytosolic sensors Rig-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 act redundantly via the common adaptor mitochondrial antiviral signaling (Mavs) to induce Nlrp3 activation in response to poly(I:C), but not ATP or nigericin. Mechanistically, Mavs triggered membrane permeabilization and K(+) efflux independently of the inflammasome which were required for poly(I:C)-induced Nlrp3 activation. We conclude that poly (I:C) activates the inflammasome through an Mavs-dependent surveillance pathway that converges into a common K(+) lowering step in the cytosol that is essential for the induction of Nlrp3 activation.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2014; 193(8). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1400582 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NOD2 encodes an intracellular multi-domain pattern recognition receptor that is the strongest known genetic risk factor in the pathogenesis of Crohns disease (CD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. NOD2 functions as a sensor for bacterial cell wall components and activates pro-inflammatory and anti-microbial signaling pathways. Here, using a genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen we identify numerous genes that regulate secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in response to NOD2 activation. Moreover, many of the identified IL-8 regulators are linked by protein-protein interactions, revealing sub-networks of highly connected IL-8 regulators implicated in processes such as vesicle formation, mRNA stability, protein ubiquitination and trafficking. A TNFα counter-screen to induce IL-8 secretion in a NOD2 independent manner reveals that the majority of the identified regulators affect IL-8 secretion irrespective of the initiating stimuli. Using immortalized macrophages, we validate the Ubiquitin protease, USP8, and the endosomal sorting protein, VPS28, as negative regulators of NOD2 induced cytokine secretion. Interestingly, several genes that affect NOD2 induced IL-8 secretion are present in loci associated with CD risk by GWAS, supporting a role for the NOD2/IL-8 pathway, and not just NOD2, in the pathogenesis of CD. Overall, this screen provides a valuable resource in the advancement of our understanding of the genes that regulate the secretion of IL-8.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.574756 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant immune response and changes in the gut microflora are the main causes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrp1, Pglyrp2, Pglyrp3, and Pglyrp4) are bactericidal innate immunity proteins that maintain normal gut microbiome, protect against experimental colitis, and are associated with IBD in humans. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2) is an intracellular bacterial sensor and may be required for maintaining normal gut microbiome. Mutations in Nod2 are strongly associated with Crohn's disease, but the causative mechanism is not understood, and the role of Nod2 in ulcerative colitis is not known. Because IBD is likely caused by variable multiple mutations in different individuals, in this study, we examined the combined role of Pglyrp3 and Nod2 in the development of experimental colitis in mice. We demonstrate that a combined deficiency of Pglyrp3 and Nod2 results in higher sensitivity to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis compared with a single deficiency. Pglyrp3(-/-)Nod2(-/-) mice had decreased survival and higher loss of body weight, increased intestinal bleeding, higher apoptosis of colonic mucosa, elevated expression of cytokines and chemokines, altered gut microbiome, and increased levels of ATP in the colon. Increased sensitivity to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in Pglyrp3(-/-)Nod2(-/-) mice depended on increased apoptosis of intestinal epithelium, changed gut microflora, and elevated ATP. Pglyrp3 deficiency contributed colitis-predisposing intestinal microflora and increased intestinal ATP, whereas Nod2 deficiency contributed higher apoptosis and responsiveness to increased level of ATP. In summary, Pglyrp3 and Nod2 are both required for maintaining gut homeostasis and protection against colitis, but their protective mechanisms differ.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2014; 193(6). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301548 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in specialized niches within the bone marrow under steady-state conditions and mobilize for extramedullary hematopoiesis during periods of stress such as bacterial infections. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We show that systemic infection of mice with Escherichia coli, commonly associated with bacteremia in humans, mobilizes functional HSCs to the spleen. Accumulation of splenic HSCs (CD150+CD48-Lin(-/low)Sca1+cKit+) was diminished in TLR4-deficient and RIPK2-deficient mice, implicating TLRs and cytosolic NOD1/NOD2 signaling in the process. Accordingly, dual stimulation of NOD1 and TLR4 in radio-resistant cells alone was sufficient to mobilize HSCs, while TLR4 expression on HSCs was dispensable. Mechanistically, TLR4 and NOD1 synergistically induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which was required for extramedullary HSC accumulation. Mobilized HSCs and progenitor cells gave rise to neutrophils and monocytes and contributed to limiting secondary infection.
    Cell Host & Microbe 05/2014; 15(6). DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2014.05.004 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial pathology associated with the presence of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) and NLRP3 polymorphic variants. The presence of intracellular E. coli in other intestinal pathologies (OIP) and the role of NLRP3-inflammasome in the immune response activated by these bacteria have not been investigated. In this study, we sought to characterize intracellular strains isolated from patients with CD, ulcerative colitis (UC) and OIP, and analyze NLRP3-inflammasome role in the immune response and bactericidal activity induced in macrophages exposed to invasive bacteria. For this, intracellular E. coli isolation from ileal biopsies, using gentamicin-protection assay, revealed a prevalence and CFU/biopsy of E. coli higher in biopsies from CD, UC and OIP patients than in controls. To characterization of bacterial isolates, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, virulence genes, serogroup and phylogenetic group were analyzed. We found out that bacteria isolated from a given patient were closely related and shared virulence factors; however, strains from different patients were genetically heterogeneous. AIEC characteristics in isolated strains, such as invasive and replicative properties, were assessed in epithelial cells and macrophages, respectively. Some strains from CD and UC demonstrated AIEC properties, but not strains from OIP. Furthermore, the role of NLRP3 in pro-inflammatory cytokines production and bacterial elimination was determined in macrophages. E. coli strains induced IL-1β through NLRP3-dependent mechanism; however, their elimination by macrophages was independent of NLRP3. Invasiveness of intracellular E. coli strains into the intestinal mucosa and IL-1β production may contribute to CD and UC pathogenesis.
    International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.01.002 · 3.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

49k Citations
3,157.75 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2015
    • University of Michigan
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1993–2015
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2013
    • University Hospital Vall d'Hebron
      • Digestive System Research Unit
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2010
    • Michigan State University
      • Division of Cardiology
      Ист-Лансинг, Michigan, United States
  • 2009
    • Waseda University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Bogazici University
      • Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2008
    • University of the Ryukyus
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Okinawa, Okinawa-ken, Japan
  • 2007
    • Utrecht University
      • Division of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Case Western Reserve University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Radiation & Cellular Oncology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006
    • Ghent University
      Gand, Flemish, Belgium
    • Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2004
    • Nara Institute of Science and Technology
      Ikuma, Nara, Japan
  • 2003
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Chicago, IL, United States
    • Shinshu University
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      Shonai, Nagano, Japan
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1995–2002
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Medical Biophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1998–1999
    • Universidad de Cantabria
      Santander, Cantabria, Spain
  • 1988–1991
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States