[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ever since eukaryotes subsumed the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria, the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have had to closely coordinate their activities, as each encode different subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of aging, but its causes are debated. We show that, during aging, there is a specific loss of mitochondrial, but not nuclear, encoded OXPHOS subunits. We trace the cause to an alternate PGC-1α/β-independent pathway of nuclear-mitochondrial communication that is induced by a decline in nuclear NAD(+) and the accumulation of HIF-1α under normoxic conditions, with parallels to Warburg reprogramming. Deleting SIRT1 accelerates this process, whereas raising NAD(+) levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Thus, a pseudohypoxic state that disrupts PGC-1α/β-independent nuclear-mitochondrial communication contributes to the decline in mitochondrial function with age, a process that is apparently reversible.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty acids are essential elements of all cells and have significant roles as energy substrates, components of cellular structure and signalling molecules. The storage of excess energy intake as fat in adipose tissue is an evolutionary advantage aimed at protecting against starvation but in much of today's world humans are faced with an unlimited availability of food and the excessive accumulation of fat is now a major risk for human health especially the development of type 2 diabetes. Since first recognition of the association between fat accumulation, reduced insulin action and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, several mechanisms have been proposed to link excess fatty acid availability to reduced insulin action, some of them competing or contradictory. This review summarises the evidence for these mechanisms in the context of excess dietary fatty acids generating insulin resistance in muscle, the major tissue involved in insulin-stimulated disposal of blood glucose. It also outlines potential problems with models and measurements that may hinder, as well as help improve our understanding of the links between fatty acids and insulin action.
Journal of Endocrinology 12/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accompanying the high rates of vitamin D deficiency observed in many countries, there is increasing interest in the physiological functions of vitamin D. Vitamin D is recognised to exert extra-skeletal actions in addition to its classic roles in bone and mineral homeostasis. Here we review the evidence for vitamin D's actions in muscle on the basis of observational studies, clinical trials and basic research. Numerous observational studies link vitamin D deficiency with muscle weakness and sarcopaenia. Randomised trials predominantly support an effect of vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of falls in older or institutionalised patients. Studies have also examined the effect of vitamin D in athletic performance, both inferentially by UV radiation and directly by vitamin D supplementation. Effects of vitamin D in muscle metabolic function, specifically insulin sensitivity, are also addressed in this review. At a mechanistic level, animal studies have evaluated the roles of vitamin D and associated minerals, calcium and phosphate, in muscle function. In vitro studies have identified molecular pathways by which vitamin D regulates muscle cell signalling and gene expression. This review evaluates evidence for the various roles of vitamin D in skeletal muscle and discusses controversies that have made this a dynamic field of research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is emerging evidence for reduced muscle function in children with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We have examined three murine models featuring NF1 deficiency in muscle to study the effect on muscle function as well as any underlying pathophysiology. The Nf1(+/-) mouse exhibited no differences in overall weight, lean tissue mass, fiber size, muscle weakness as measured by grip strength, or muscle atrophy-recovery with limb disuse, although this model lacks many other characteristic features of the human disease. Next, muscle-specific knockout mice (Nf1muscle(-/-)) were generated and they exhibited a failure to thrive leading to neonatal lethality. Intramyocellular lipid accumulations were observed by electron microscopy (EM) and Oil Red O staining. More mature muscle specimens lacking Nf1 expression taken from the limb-specific Nf1Prx1(-/-) conditional knockout line showed a 10-fold increase in muscle triglyceride content. Enzyme assays revealed a significant increase in the activities of oxidative metabolism enzymes in the Nf1Prx1(-/-) mice. Western analyses showed increases in the expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) and the hormone Leptin, as well as decreased expression of a number of fatty acid transporters in this mouse line. These data support the hypothesis that NF1 is essential for normal muscle function and survival and are the first to suggest a direct link between NF1 and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism.
Human Molecular Genetics 10/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α-Actinin-3 deficiency occurs in approximately 16% of the global population due to homozygosity for a common nonsense polymorphism in the ACTN3 gene. Loss of α-actinin-3 is associated with reduced power and enhanced endurance capacity in elite athletes and nonathletes due to "slowing" of the metabolic and physiological properties of fast fibers. Here, we have shown that α-actinin-3 deficiency results in increased calcineurin activity in mouse and human skeletal muscle and enhanced adaptive response to endurance training. α-Actinin-2, which is differentially expressed in α-actinin-3-deficient muscle, has higher binding affinity for calsarcin-2, a key inhibitor of calcineurin activation. We have further demonstrated that α-actinin-2 competes with calcineurin for binding to calsarcin-2, resulting in enhanced calcineurin signaling and reprogramming of the metabolic phenotype of fast muscle fibers. Our data provide a mechanistic explanation for the effects of the ACTN3 genotype on skeletal muscle performance in elite athletes and on adaptation to changing physical demands in the general population. In addition, we have demonstrated that the sarcomeric α-actinins play a role in the regulation of calcineurin signaling.
The Journal of clinical investigation 10/2013; 123(10):4255-4263. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary intake of long-chain fatty acids(LCFA) plays a causative role in insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. Whereas LCFA promote lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, diets rich in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) have been associated with increased oxidative metabolism and reduced adiposity, with little deleterious effects on insulin action. The molecular mechanisms underlying these differences between dietary fat subtypes are poorly understood. To investigate this further, we treated C2C12 myotubes with various LCFA(16:0, 18:1n9, 18:2n6) and MCFA (10:0, 12:0), as well as fed mice diets rich in LCFA or MCFA, and investigated fatty acid-induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress. MCFA-treated cells displayed less lipid accumulation, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and less oxidative stress than LCFA-treated cells. These changes were associated with improved insulin action in MCFA-treated myotubes. MCFA-fed mice exhibited increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity and better glucose tolerance compared to LCFA-mice. Dietary MCFA increased respiration in isolated mitochondria, with a simultaneous reduction in reactive oxygen species generation, and subsequently low oxidative damage. Collectively our findings indicate that in contrast to LCFA, MCFA increase the intrinsic respiratory capacity of mitochondria, without increasing oxidative stress. These effects potentially contribute to the beneficial metabolic actions of dietary MCFA.
The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2013; · 4.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, reversible lysine acylation of proteins has emerged as a major post-translational modification across the cell, and importantly has been shown to regulate many proteins in mitochondria. One key family of deacylase enzymes are the sirtuins, of which SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are localised to the mitochondria and regulate acyl modifications in this organelle.
In this review we discuss the emerging role of lysine acylation in the mitochondrion and summarise the evidence that proposes mitochondrial sirtuins are important players in the modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism in response to external nutrient cues, via their action as lysine deacylases. We also highlight some key areas of mitochondrial sirtuin biology where future research efforts are required.
Lysine deacetylation appears to play some role in regulating mitochondrial metabolism. Recent discoveries of new enzymatic capabilities of mitochondrial sirtuins, including desuccinylation and demalonylation activities, as well as an increasing list of novel protein substrates have identified many new questions regarding the role of mitochondrial sirtuins in the regulation of energy metabolism.
Dynamic changes in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism may have far-reaching consequences for many diseases, and despite promising initial findings in knockout animals and cell models, the role of the mitochondrial sirtuins requires further exploration in this context.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decreasing mitochondrial coupling efficiency has been shown to be an effective therapy for obesity and related metabolic symptoms. Here we identified a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that promoted uncoupled respiration in a cell type-specific manner and investigated its effects on modulation of energy metabolism in vivo and in vitro.
We screened a collection of mitochondrial membrane potential depolarising compounds for a novel chemical uncoupler on isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria using a channel oxygen system. The effect on respiration of metabolic cells (L6 myotubes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rat primary hepatocytes) was examined and metabolic pathways sensitive to cellular ATP content were also evaluated. The chronic metabolic effects were investigated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice and standard diet-fed (SD) lean mice.
The novel uncoupler, CZ5, promoted uncoupled respiration in a cell type-specific manner. It stimulated fuel oxidation in L6 myotubes and reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes but did not affect gluconeogenesis or the triacylglycerol content in hepatocytes. The administration of CZ5 to SD mice increased energy expenditure (EE) but did not affect body weight or adiposity. Chronic studies in mice on high-fat diet showed that CZ5 reduced body weight and improved glucose and lipid metabolism via both increased EE and suppressed energy intake. The reduced adiposity was associated with the restoration of expression of key metabolic genes in visceral adipose tissue.
This work demonstrates that a cell type-specific mitochondrial chemical uncoupler may have therapeutic potential for treating high-fat diet-induced metabolic diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3) is a transcriptional regulator that we have shown to be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis in vitro. Here we report that KLF3 null mice are lean and protected from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. On a chow diet, plasma levels of leptin are decreased, and adiponectin is increased. Despite significant reductions in body weight and adiposity, wildtype and knockout animals show equivalent energy intake, expenditure and excretion. To investigate the molecular events underlying these observations, we used microarray analysis to compare gene expression in Klf3(+/+) and Klf3(-/-) tissues. We found that mRNA expression of Fam132a, which encodes a newly identified insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adipolin, is significantly upregulated in the absence of KLF3. We confirmed that KLF3 binds the Fam132a promoter in vitro and in vivo and that this leads to repression of promoter activity. Further, plasma adipolin levels were significantly increased in Klf3(-/-) mice compared to wild-type littermates. Boosting levels of adipolin via targeting of KLF3 offers a novel potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of insulin resistance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: While it is well known that diet-induced obesity causes insulin resistance, the precise mechanisms underpinning the initiation of insulin resistance are unclear. To determine factors that may cause insulin resistance, we have performed a detailed time-course study in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice were fed chow or an HFD from 3 days to 16 weeks and glucose tolerance and tissue-specific insulin action were determined. Tissue lipid profiles were analysed by mass spectrometry and inflammatory markers were measured in adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle. RESULTS: Glucose intolerance developed within 3 days of the HFD and did not deteriorate further in the period to 12 weeks. Whole-body insulin resistance, measured by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, was detected after 1 week of HFD and was due to hepatic insulin resistance. Adipose tissue was insulin resistant after 1 week, while skeletal muscle displayed insulin resistance at 3 weeks, coinciding with a defect in glucose disposal. Interestingly, no further deterioration in insulin sensitivity was observed in any tissue after this initial defect. Diacylglycerol content was increased in liver and muscle when insulin resistance first developed, while the onset of insulin resistance in adipose tissue was associated with increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin. Adipose tissue inflammation was only detected at 16 weeks of HFD and did not correlate with the induction of insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: HFD-induced whole-body insulin resistance is initiated by impaired hepatic insulin action and exacerbated by skeletal muscle insulin resistance and is associated with the accumulation of specific bioactive lipid species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metabolic disorders are commonly investigated using knockout and transgenic mouse models. A variety of mouse strains have been used for this purpose. However, mouse strains can differ in their inherent propensities to develop metabolic disease, which may affect the experimental outcomes of metabolic studies. We have investigated strain-dependent differences in the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in five commonly used inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, 129X1/SvJ, BALB/c, DBA/2 and FVB/N). METHODS: Mice were fed either a low-fat or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Whole-body energy expenditure and body composition were then determined. Tissues were used to measure markers of mitochondrial metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid accumulation. RESULTS: BL6, 129X1, DBA/2 and FVB/N mice were all susceptible to varying degrees to HFD-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, but BALB/c mice exhibited some protection from these detrimental effects. This protection could not be explained by differences in mitochondrial metabolism or oxidative stress in liver or muscle, or inflammation in adipose tissue. Interestingly, in contrast with the other strains, BALB/c mice did not accumulate excess lipid (triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols) in the liver; this is potentially related to lower fatty acid uptake rather than differences in lipogenesis or lipid oxidation. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Collectively, our findings indicate that most mouse strains develop metabolic defects on an HFD. However, there are inherent differences between strains, and thus the genetic background needs to be considered carefully in metabolic studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently showed that bitter melon-derived triterpenoids (BMTs) activate AMPK and increase GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in vitro, and improve glucose disposal in insulin resistant models in vivo. Here we interrogated the mechanism by which these novel compounds activate AMPK, a leading anti-diabetic drug target. BMTs did not activate AMPK directly in an allosteric manner as AMP or the Abbott compound (A-769662) does, nor did they activate AMPK by inhibiting cellular respiration like many commonly used anti-diabetic medications. BMTs increased AMPK activity in both L6 myotubes and LKB1-deficient HeLa cells by 20-35%. Incubation with the CaMKKβ inhibitor, STO-609, completely attenuated this effect suggesting a key role for CaMKKβ in this activation. Incubation of L6 myotubes with the calcium chelator EGTA-AM did not alter this activation suggesting that the BMT-dependent activation was Ca(2+)-independent. We therefore propose that CaMKKβ is a key upstream kinase for BMT-induced activation of AMPK.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e62309. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated a role for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) as a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. We report that genetic deletion of cyclophilin D (CypD), which inhibits mPTP opening, protected mice against high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and enhanced glucose utilization in skeletal muscle but not liver or adipose tissue. This increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle was associated with preserved mitochondrial morphology and improved mitochondrial calcium retention, but was independent of alterations in insulin signaling, mitochondrial bioenergetics, oxidative stress, and lipotoxic lipid accumulation. In cultured muscle cells, we observed that the CypD inhibitor cyclosporin A prevented the development of insulin resistance caused by 4 models of mitochondrial dysfunction including ROS production, fat overload, and calcium overload. In sum, these data place the mPTP at a critical intersection between alterations in mitochondrial function and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The effects of different amounts of omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids in diets with normal or high content of fat on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Mice were fed for 8 weeks on diets enriched with fish oil or lard at 10% or 60% of energy. Energy balance and energy expenditure were analyzed. Fatty acid (FA) oxidative capacity of the liver and the activity of enzymes involved in this pathway were assessed. RESULTS: Fish oil-fed mice had lower body weight and adiposity compared with lard-fed animals, despite having lower rates of oxygen consumption. Mice fed diets containing fish oil also displayed lower glycemia, reduced fat content in the liver, and improved glucose tolerance compared with lard-fed animals. The fish oil-containing diets increased markers of hepatic peroxisomal content and increased the generation of metabolites derived from FA β-oxidation in liver homogenates. In contrast, no changes were observed in the content of mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins or carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 in the liver, indicating little direct effect of fish oil on mitochondrial metabolism. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings suggest that the energy inefficient oxidation of FAs in peroxisomes may be an important mechanism underlying the protection against obesity and glucose intolerance of fish oil administration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipokine whose plasma levels are inversely related to degrees of insulin resistance (IR) or obesity. It enhances glucose disposal and mitochondrial substrate oxidation in skeletal muscle and its actions are mediated through binding to receptors, especially adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1). However, the in vivo significance of adiponectin sensitivity and the molecular mechanisms of muscle insulin sensitization by adiponectin have not been fully established. We used in vivo electrotransfer to overexpress AdipoR1 in single muscles of rats, some of which were fed for 6 wk with chow or high-fat diet (HFD) and then subjected to hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. After 1 wk, the effects on glucose disposal, signaling, and sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in test vs. contralateral control muscles. AdipoR1 overexpression (OE) increased glucose uptake and glycogen accumulation in the basal and insulin-treated rat muscle and also in the HFD-fed rats, locally ameliorating muscle IR. These effects were associated with increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. AdipoR1 OE also caused increased phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase, and acetyl-coA carboxylase as well as increased protein levels of adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and leucine zipper motif-1 and adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and uncoupling protein-3, indicative of increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Although neither HFD feeding nor AdipoR1 OE caused generalized changes in sphingolipids, AdipoR1 OE did reduce levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate, ceramide 18:1, ceramide 20:2, and dihydroceramide 20:0, plus mRNA levels of the ceramide synthetic enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase and sphingolipid Δ-4 desaturase, changes that are associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data demonstrate that enhancement of local adiponectin sensitivity is sufficient to improve skeletal muscle IR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Energy metabolism follows a diurnal pattern responding to the light/dark cycle and food availability. This study investigated the impact of restricting feeding to the daylight hours and feeding a high fat diet on circadian clock (bmal1, dbp, tef and e4bp4) and metabolic (pepck, fas, ucp3, pdk4) gene expression and markers of energy metabolism in muscle and liver of rats. The results show that in chow-fed rats switched to daylight feeding, the peak diurnal expression of genes in liver was shifted by 6-12h while expression of these genes in muscle remained in a similar phase to rats feeding ad libitum. High fat feeding during the daylight hours had limited effect on clock gene expression in liver or muscle but shifted the peak expression of metabolic genes (pepck, fas) in liver by 6-12h. The differential effects of daylight feeding on gene and protein expression in muscle and liver were accompanied by an 8% reduction in whole body energy expenditure, a 20-30% increased glycogen content during the light phase in muscle of day-fed rats and increased adipose tissue deposition per gram food consumed. These data demonstrate that a mismatch of feeding and light/dark cycle disrupts tissue metabolism in muscle with significant consequences for whole body energy homeostasis.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2012; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species have been suggested to play a causative role in some forms of muscle insulin resistance. However, the extent of their involvement in the development of diet-induced insulin resistance remains unclear. To investigate, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a key mitochondrial-specific enzyme with antioxidant modality, was overexpressed, and the effect on in vivo muscle insulin resistance induced by a high-fat (HF) diet in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats were maintained on chow or HF diet. After 3 wk, in vivo electroporation (IVE) of MnSOD expression and empty vectors was undertaken in right and left tibialis cranialis (TC) muscles, respectively. After one more week, insulin action was evaluated using hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and tissues were subsequently analyzed for antioxidant enzyme capacity and markers of oxidative stress. MnSOD mRNA was overexpressed 4.5-fold, and protein levels were increased by 70%, with protein detected primarily in the mitochondrial fraction of muscle fibers. This was associated with elevated MnSOD and glutathione peroxidase activity, indicating that the overexpressed MnSOD was functionally active. The HF diet significantly reduced whole body and TC muscle insulin action, whereas overexpression of MnSOD in HF diet animals ameliorated this reduction in TC muscle glucose uptake by 50% (P < 0.05). Decreased protein carbonylation was seen in MnSOD overexpressing TC muscle in HF-treated animals (20% vs. contralateral control leg, P < 0.05), suggesting that this effect was mediated through an altered redox state. Thus interventions causing elevation of mitochondrial antioxidant activity may offer protection against diet-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2012; 303(6):E798-805. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grb10 is an intracellular adaptor protein that acts as a negative regulator of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors. Since global deletion of Grb10 in mice causes hypermuscularity, we have characterized the skeletal muscle physiology underlying this phenotype. Compared to wild-type (WT) controls, adult mice deficient in Grb10 have elevated body mass and muscle mass throughout adulthood, up to 12 mo of age. The muscle enlargement is not due to increased myofiber size, but rather an increase in myofiber number (142% of WT, P<0.01). There is no change in myofiber type proportions between WT and Grb10-deficient muscles, nor are the metabolic properties of the muscles altered on Grb10 deletion. Notably, the weight and cross-sectional area of hindlimbs from neonatal mice are increased in Grb10-deficient animals (198 and 137% of WT, respectively, both P<0.001). Functional gene signatures for myogenic signaling and proliferation are up-regulated in Grb10-deficient neonatal muscle. Our findings indicate that Grb10 plays a previously unrecognized role in regulating the development of fiber number during murine embryonic growth. In addition, Grb10-ablated muscle from adult mice shows coordinate gene changes that oppose those of muscle wasting pathologies, highlighting Grb10 as a potential therapeutic target for these conditions.
The FASEB Journal 05/2012; 26(9):3658-69. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptide YY (PYY) is best known for its important role in appetite regulation, but recent pharmacological studies have suggested that PYY is also involved in regulating energy balance and glucose homeostasis. However, the mechanism behind the regulation of these parameters by PYY is less clear. Here, by utilising an inducible transgenic mouse model where PYY overexpression is induced in adult animals (PYYtg) and release of mature PYY peptides is controlled by endogenous machineries, we show that elevating PYY levels leads to reduced food intake after a 24-h fast. Furthermore, PYYtg mice, although not significantly different from WT with respect to body weight, adiposity, lean mass, physical activity or energy expenditure, exhibited a significantly increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER), indicating decreased lipid oxidation and/or increased lipogenesis. Importantly, PYYtg mice showed a 25% reduction in liver protein levels of phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC) in the absence of changes in total ACC levels compared to those of WT mice. Moreover, liver protein levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in PYYtg mice were 25% lower than those of WT mice, consistent with a reduced pACC in these mice. These data suggest that elevation of PYY levels as seen after a meal can increase lipogenic capacity, which is likely a key contributor to the increased RER seen in PYYtg mice. In addition, PYYtg mice exhibited comparable insulin tolerance and oral glucose tolerance to those of WT, but showed a trend towards decreased insulin levels in response to an oral glucose challenge, indicating that PYY could improve insulin action. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that under physiological conditions, PYY reduces food intake while enhancing lipogenic capacity and insulin action, likely contributing to fuel assimilation in the postprandial state.