ABSTRACT: Cellular therapies that either use modifications of a patient's own cells or allogeneic cell lines are becoming in vogue. Besides the technical issues of optimal isolation, cultivation and modification, quality control of the generated cellular products are increasingly being considered to be more important. This is not only relevant for the cell's therapeutic application but also for cell science in general. Recent changes in editorial policies of respected journals, which now require proof of authenticity when cell lines are used, demonstrate that the subject of the present paper is not a virtual problem at all. In this article we provide 2 examples of contaminated cell lines followed by a review of the recent developments used to verify cell lines, stem cells and modifications of autologous cells. With relative simple techniques one can now prove the authenticity and the quality of the cellular material of interest and therefore improve the scientific basis for the development of cells for therapeutic applications. The future of advanced cellular therapies will require production and characterization of cells under GMP and GLP conditions, which include proof of identity, safety and functionality and absence of contamination.
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy 04/2010; 37(2):57-64. · 1.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are applied worldwide in several clinical studies of immune therapy of malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and transplantations. Most legislative bodies are demanding high standards for cultivation and transduction of cells. Closed-cell cultivating systems like cell culture bags would simplify and greatly improve the ability to reach these cultivation standards. We investigated if a new polyolefin cell culture bag enables maturation and adenoviral modification of human DCs in a closed system and compare the results with standard polystyrene flasks.
Mononuclear cells were isolated from HLA-A*0201-positive blood donors by leukapheresis. A commercially available separation system (CliniMACS, Miltenyi Biotec) was used to isolate monocytes by positive selection using CD14-specific immunomagnetic beads. The essentially homogenous starting cell population was cultivated in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4 in a closed-bag system in parallel to the standard flask cultivation system. Genetic modification was performed on Day 4. After induction of maturation on Day 5, mature DCs could be harvested and cryopreserved on Day 7. During the cultivation period comparative quality control was performed using flow cytometry, gene expression profiling, and functional assays.
Both flasks and bags generated mature genetically modified DCs in similar yields. Surface membrane markers, expression profiles, and functional testing results were comparable. The use of a closed-bag system facilitated clinical applicability of genetically modified DCs.
The polyolefin bag-based culture system yields DCs qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the standard flask preparation. All steps including cryopreservation can be performed in a closed system facilitating standardized, safe, and reproducible preparation of therapeutic cells.
Transfusion 12/2009; 50(4):843-55. · 3.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. DCs for clinical applications can be generated with high yield from leukapheresis products. Using adenoviral transduction we genetically modified human DCs to produce and present melanoma-associated antigens. Coexpression of green fluorescent protein and epitope tags were used to monitor genetic modification. Generation, genetic modification, and cryoconservation of gene modified human DCs on a clinical scale in a closed system is feasible.
CD14-positive monomuclear cells were isolated from leukapheresis products of HLA-A* 0201 positive voluntary blood donors using immunomagnetic beads. Selected cells were cultivated for 7 days. Adenovirus transduction was optimal on Day 4. Maturation was induced on Day 5. Mature DC were aliquoted and cryoconserved on Day 7. Quality control was performed using flow cytometry, expression profiling, and functional assays (ELISPOT, CBA).
We were able to generate sufficient genetically modified mature DCs in serum-free cultures that could be stored by cryopreservation. The use of a closed system facilitated development of methods for standardized production of clinically applicable genetically modified DCs. The adenoviral transduction system allowed simultaneous and flexible expression of tumor-associated antigens for prolonged presentation of multiple epitopes.
The feasibility of a closed-bag system for the cultivation of genetically modified human DCs is shown. The immature DCs were genetically modified by recombinant replication-deficient adenoviruses to express multiple epitopes of tumor-associated proteins and then differentiated to mature antigen-presenting DCs.
Transfusion 12/2009; 50(4):831-42. · 3.22 Impact Factor