[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Varying pulmonary shunt fractions during the respiratory cycle cause oxygen oscillations during mechanical ventilation. In artificially damaged lungs, cyclical recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for varying shunt according to published evidence. We introduce a complimentary hypothesis that cyclically varying shunt in healthy lungs is caused by cyclical redistribution of pulmonary perfusion. Administration of crystalloid or colloid infusions would decrease oxygen oscillations if our hypothesis was right. Therefore, n = 14 mechanically ventilated healthy pigs were investigated in 2 groups: crystalloid (fluid) versus no-fluid administration. Additional volume interventions (colloid infusion, blood withdrawal) were carried out in each pig. Intra-aortal PaO(2) oscillations were recorded using fluorescence quenching technique. Phase shift of oxygen oscillations during altered inspiratory to expiratory (I:E) ventilation ratio and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) served as control methods to exclude that recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for oxygen oscillations. In hypovolemia relevant oxygen oscillations could be recorded. Fluid and volume state changed PaO(2) oscillations according to our hypothesis. Fluid administration led to a mean decline of 105.3 mmHg of the PaO(2) oscillations amplitude (P < 0.001). The difference of the amplitudes between colloid administration and blood withdrawal was 62.4 mmHg in pigs not having received fluids (P = 0.0059). Fluid and volume state also changed the oscillation phase during altered I:E ratio. EIT excluded changes of regional ventilation (i.e., recruitment of atelectasis) to be responsible for these oscillations. In healthy pigs, cyclical redistribution of pulmonary perfusion can explain the size of respiratory-dependent PaO(2) oscillations.
Experimental Lung Research 01/2013; · 1.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is considered useful for monitoring regional ventilation and aeration in intensive-care patients during mechanical ventilation. Changes in their body fluid state modify the electrical properties of lung tissue and may interfere with the EIT measurements of lung aeration. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of crystalloid and colloid infusion and blood withdrawal on bioimpedance determined by EIT in a chest cross-section. Fourteen anaesthetized mechanically ventilated pigs were subjected to interventions affecting the volume state (crystalloid and colloid infusion, blood withdrawal). Six animals received additional crystalloid fluids (fluid group) whereas eight did not (no-fluid group). Global and regional relative impedance changes (RIC, dimensionless unit) were determined by backprojection at end-expiration. Regional ventilation distribution was analyzed by calculating the tidal RIC in the same regions. Colloid infusion led to a significant fall in the global end-expiratory RIC (mean differences: fluid: -91.2, p < 0.001, no-fluid: -38.9, p < 0.001), which was partially reversed after blood withdrawal (mean differences, fluid: +45.1, p = 0.047 and no-fluid: +26.2, p = 0.009). The RIC was significantly lower in the animals with additional crystalloids (mean group difference: 45.5, p < 0.001). Global and regional tidal volumes were not significantly affected by the fluid and volume states.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High arterial partial oxygen pressure (Pao(2)) oscillations within the respiratory cycle were described recently in experimental acute lung injury. This phenomenon has been related to cyclic recruitment of atelectasis and varying pulmonary shunt fractions. Noninvasive detection of Spo(2) (oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry) as an indicator of cyclic collapse of atelectasis, instead of recording Pao(2) oscillations, could be of clinical interest in critical care. Spo(2) oscillations were recorded continuously in three different cases of lung damage to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this approach. To deduce Pao(2) from Spo(2), a mathematical model of the hemoglobin dissociation curve including left and right shifts was derived from the literature and adapted to the dynamic changes of oxygenation. Calculated Pao(2) amplitudes (derived from Spo(2) measurements) were compared to simultaneously measured fast changes of Pao(2), using a current standard method (fluorescence quenching of ruthenium). Peripheral hemoglobin saturation was capable to capture changes of Spo(2) within each respiratory cycle. For the first time, Spo(2) oscillations due to cyclic recruitment of atelectasis within a respiratory cycle were determined by photoplethysmography, a technology that can be readily applied noninvasively in clinical routine. A mathematic model to calculate the respective Pao(2) changes was developed and its applicability tested.
Experimental Lung Research 06/2010; 36(5):270-6. · 1.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multiple inert gas elimination technique was developed to measure shunt and the ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung (V(A)'/Q') distributions. Micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MMIMS), instead of gas chromatography, has been introduced for inert gas measurement and shunt determination in a rabbit lung model. However, agreement with a frequently used and accepted method for quantifying deficits in arterial oxygenation has not been established. We compared MMIMS-derived shunt (M-S) as a fraction of total cardiac output (CO) with Riley shunt (R-S) derived from the R-S formula in a porcine lung injury model.
To allow a broad variance of atelectasis and therefore shunt fraction, 8 sham animals did not receive lavage, and 8 animals were treated by lung lavages with 30 mL/kg warmed lactated Ringer's solution as follows: 2 animals were lavaged once, 5 animals twice, and 1 animal 3 times. Variables were recorded at baseline and twice after induction of lung injury (T1 and T2). Retention data of sulfur hexafluoride, krypton, desflurane, enflurane, diethyl ether, and acetone were analyzed by MMIMS, and M-S was derived using a known algorithm for the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Standard formulas were used for the calculation of R-S.
Forty-four pairs of M-S and R-S were recorded. M-S ranged from 0.1% to 35.4% and R-S from 3.7% to 62.1%. M-S showed a correlation with R-S described by linear regression: M-S = -4.26 + 0.59 x R-S (r(2) = 0.83). M-S was on average lower than R-S (mean = -15.0% CO, sd = 6.5% CO, and median = -15.1), with lower and upper limits of agreement of -28.0% and -2.0%, respectively. The lower and upper limits of the 95% confidence intervals were -17.0 and -13.1 (P < 0.001, Student's t-test).
Shunt derived from MMIMS inert gas retention data correlated well with R-S during breathing of oxygen. Shunt as derived by MMIMS was generally less than R-S.
Anesthesia and analgesia 12/2009; 109(6):1831-5. · 3.08 Impact Factor