ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to noninvasively image the electrophysiological (EP) substrate of human ventricles after myocardial infarction and define its characteristics.
Ventricular infarct border zone is characterized by abnormal cellular electrophysiology and altered structural architecture and is a key contributor to arrhythmogenesis. The ability to noninvasively image its electrical characteristics could contribute to understanding of mechanisms and to risk-stratification for ventricular arrhythmia.
Electrocardiographic imaging, a noninvasive functional EP imaging modality, was performed during sinus rhythm (SR) in 24 subjects with infarct-related myocardial scar. The abnormal EP substrate on the epicardial aspect of the scar was identified, and its location, size, and morphology were compared with the anatomic scar imaged by other noninvasive modalities.
Electrocardiographic imaging constructs epicardial electrograms that have characteristics of reduced amplitude (low voltage) and fractionation. Electrocardiographic imaging colocalizes the epicardial electrical scar to the anatomic scar with a high degree of accuracy (sensitivity 89%, specificity 85%). In nearly all subjects, SR activation patterns were affected by the presence of myocardial scar. Late potentials could be identified and were almost always within ventricular scar.
Electrocardiographic imaging accurately identifies areas of anatomic scar and complements standard anatomic imaging by providing scar-related EP characteristics of low voltages, altered SR activation, electrogram fragmentation, and presence of late potentials.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2011; 58(18):1893-902. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The rapid heartbeat of ventricular tachycardia (VT) can lead to sudden cardiac death and is a major health issue worldwide. Efforts to identify patients at risk, determine mechanisms of VT, and effectively prevent and treat VT through a mechanism-based approach would all be facilitated by continuous, noninvasive imaging of the arrhythmia over the entire heart. Here, we present noninvasive real-time images of human ventricular arrhythmias using electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI). Our results reveal diverse activation patterns, mechanisms, and sites of initiation of human VT. The spatial resolution of ECGI is superior to that of the routinely used 12-lead electrocardiogram, which provides only global information, and ECGI has distinct advantages over the currently used method of mapping with invasive catheter-applied electrodes. The spatial resolution of this method and its ability to image electrical activation sequences over the entire ventricular surfaces in a single heartbeat allowed us to determine VT initiation sites and continuation pathways, as well as VT relationships to ventricular substrates, including anatomical scars and abnormal electrophysiological substrate. Thus, ECGI can map the VT activation sequence and identify the location and depth of VT origin in individual patients, allowing personalized treatment of patients with ventricular arrhythmias.
Science translational medicine 08/2011; 3(98):98ra84. · 7.80 Impact Factor
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 09/2010; 7(9):1316-7. · 4.56 Impact Factor
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 12/2009; 7(4):534-7. · 4.56 Impact Factor