Cathleen R Carlin

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

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Publications (61)401.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cellular programs coupled to cycles of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play critical roles during embryogenesis, as well as during tissue development, remodeling, and repair. Research over the last decade has established the importance of an ever-expanding list of master EMT transcription factors, whose activity is regulated by STAT3 and function to stimulate the rapid transition of cells between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. Importantly, inappropriate reactivation of embryonic EMT programs in carcinoma cells underlies their metastasis to distant organ sites, as well as their acquisition of stem cell-like and chemoresistant phenotypes operant in eliciting disease recurrence. Thus, targeted inactivation of master EMT transcription factors may offer new inroads to alleviate metastatic disease. Here we review the molecular, cellular, and microenvironmental factors that contribute to the pathophysiological activities of STAT3 during its regulation of EMT programs in human carcinomas.
    JAK-STAT. 01/2014; 3(1):e28975.
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii resides in an intracellular compartment (parasitophorous vacuole) that excludes transmembrane molecules required for endosome - lysosome recruitment. Thus, the parasite survives by avoiding lysosomal degradation. However, autophagy can re-route the parasitophorous vacuole to the lysosomes and cause parasite killing. This raises the possibility that T. gondii may deploy a strategy to prevent autophagic targeting to maintain the non-fusogenic nature of the vacuole. We report that T. gondii activated EGFR in endothelial cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells and microglia. Blockade of EGFR or its downstream molecule, Akt, caused targeting of the parasite by LC3(+) structures, vacuole-lysosomal fusion, lysosomal degradation and killing of the parasite that were dependent on the autophagy proteins Atg7 and Beclin 1. Disassembly of GPCR or inhibition of metalloproteinases did not prevent EGFR-Akt activation. T. gondii micronemal proteins (MICs) containing EGF domains (EGF-MICs; MIC3 and MIC6) appeared to promote EGFR activation. Parasites defective in EGF-MICs (MIC1 ko, deficient in MIC1 and secretion of MIC6; MIC3 ko, deficient in MIC3; and MIC1-3 ko, deficient in MIC1, MIC3 and secretion of MIC6) caused impaired EGFR-Akt activation and recombinant EGF-MICs (MIC3 and MIC6) caused EGFR-Akt activation. In cells treated with autophagy stimulators (CD154, rapamycin) EGFR signaling inhibited LC3 accumulation around the parasite. Moreover, increased LC3 accumulation and parasite killing were noted in CD154-activated cells infected with MIC1-3 ko parasites. Finally, recombinant MIC3 and MIC6 inhibited parasite killing triggered by CD154 particularly against MIC1-3 ko parasites. Thus, our findings identified EGFR activation as a strategy used by T. gondii to maintain the non-fusogenic nature of the parasitophorous vacuole and suggest that EGF-MICs have a novel role in affecting signaling in host cells to promote parasite survival.
    PLoS Pathogens 12/2013; 9(12):e1003809. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is caused by mutations in NPC1 or NPC2, which coordinate egress of LDL-cholesterol from late endosomes (LEs). We previously reported that the adenovirus-encoded protein RIDα rescues the cholesterol storage phenotype in NPC1-mutant fibroblasts. We show here that RIDα reconstitutes deficient endosome-to-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transport allowing excess LDL-cholesterol to be esterified by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyl transferase and stored in lipid droplets (LDs) in NPC1-deficient cells. Furthermore, the RIDα pathway is regulated by the oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L. Studies to date have classified ORP1L as a sterol sensor involved in LE positioning downstream of GTP-Rab7, however our data suggest ORP1L may play a role in the transport of LDL-cholesterol to a specific ER pool designated for LD formation. In contrast to NPC1 which is dispensable, the RIDα/ORP1L dependent route requires functional NPC2. Although NPC1/NPC2 constitutes the major pathway, therapies that amplify minor egress routes for LDL-cholesterol could significantly improve clinical management of patients with loss-of-function NPC1 mutations. The molecular identity of putative alternative pathways however is poorly characterized. We propose RIDα as a model system for understanding physiological egress routes that utilize ORP1L to activate ER feedback responses involved in LD formation.
    Molecular biology of the cell 09/2013; · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously established that overexpression of the EGF receptor (EGFR) is sufficient to induce tumor formation by otherwise non-transformed mammary epithelial cells, and that the initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is capable of increasing the invasion and metastasis of these cells. Using this breast cancer (BC) model, we find that in addition to EGF, adhesion to fibronectin (FN) activates Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Stat3) through EGFR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Importantly, EMT facilitated a signaling switch from Src-dependent EGFR:Stat3 signaling in pre-EMT cells to EGFR-independent FN:Jak2:Stat3 signaling in their post-EMT counterparts, thereby sensitizing these cells to Jak2 inhibition. Accordingly, human metastatic BC cells that failed to activate Stat3 downstream of EGFR did display robust Stat3 activity upon adhesion to FN. Furthermore, FN enhanced outgrowth in three-dimensional organotypic cultures via a mechanism that is dependent upon β1 integrin, Janus kinase 2 (Jak2), and Stat3 but not EGFR. Collectively, our data demonstrate that matrix-initiated signaling is sufficient to drive Stat3 activation, a reaction that is facilitated by EMT during BC metastatic progression.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    Xuehuo Zeng, Cathleen R Carlin
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    ABSTRACT: Human adenoviruses typically cause mild infections in the upper or lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or ocular epithelium. However adenoviruses may be life-threatening in patients with impaired immunity and some serotypes cause epidemic outbreaks. Attachment to host cell receptors activates cell signaling and virus uptake by endocytosis. At present it is unclear how vital cellular homeostatic mechanisms affect these early steps in the adenovirus life cycle. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway for recycling intracellular components that is up-regulated during periods of cell stress. Autophagic cargo are sequestered in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes that fuse with endosomes to form amphisomes which then deliver their content to lysosomes. Autophagy is an important adaptive response in airway epithelial cells targeted by many common adenovirus serotypes. Using two established tissue culture models, we demonstrate here that adaptive autophagy enhances expression of the early region 1 adenovirus protein, induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and production of new viral progeny in airway epithelial cells infected with adenovirus type 2. We have also discovered that adenovirus infections are tightly regulated by endosome maturation, a process characterized by abrupt exchange of Rab5 and Rab7 GTPases associated with early and late endosomes, respectively. Moreover endosome maturation appears to control a pool of early endosomes capable of fusing with autophagosomes which enhance adenovirus infection. Many viruses have evolved mechanisms to induce autophagy in order to aid their own replication. Our studies reveal a novel role for host cell autophagy that could have a significant impact on the outcome of respiratory infections.
    Journal of Virology 12/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proliferation of epithelial tissues is controlled by polarized distribution of signaling receptors including the EGF receptor (EGFR). In kidney, EGFRs are segregated from soluble ligands present in apical fluid of nephrons by selective targeting to basolateral membranes. We have shown previously that the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP1B mediates basolateral EGFR sorting in established epithelia. Here we show that protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of Thr654 regulates EGFR polarity as epithelial cells form new cell-cell junctional complexes. The AP1B-dependent pathway does not override a PKC-resistant T654A mutation, and conversely AP1B-defective EGFRs sort basolaterally by a PKC-dependent mechanism, in polarizing cells. Surprisingly, EGFR mutations that interfere with these different sorting pathways also produce very distinct phenotypes in three-dimensional organotypic cultures. Thus EGFRs execute different functions depending on the basolateral sorting route. Many renal disorders have defects in cell polarity and the notion that apically mislocalized EGFRs promote proliferation is still an attractive model to explain many aspects of polycystic kidney disease. Our data suggest EGFR also integrates various aspects of polarity by switching between different BL sorting programs in developing epithelial cells. Fundamental knowledge of basic mechanisms governing EGFR sorting therefore provides new insights into pathogenesis and advances drug discovery for these renal disorders.
    Traffic 12/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 14 (PTPN14) is frequently mutated in a variety of human cancers. However, the cell signaling pathways regulated by PTPN14 largely remain to be elucidated. Here, we identify a list of potential substrates of PTPN14 using a phospho-proteomic approach. We show that p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130Cas) is a direct substrate of PTPN14 and that PTPN14 specifically regulates p130Cas phosphorylation at tyrosine residue 128 (Y128) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We engineered CRC cells homozygous for a p130Cas Y128F knock-in mutant and found that these cells exhibit significantly reduced migration and colony formation, impaired anchorage-independent growth, slower xenograft tumor growth in nude mice and have decreased phosphorylation of AKT. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SRC phosphorylates p130Cas Y128 and that CRC cell lines harboring high levels of pY128Cas are more sensitive to SRC family kinase inhibitor Dasatinib. These findings suggest that p130Cas Y128 phosphorylation may be exploited as a predictive marker for Dasatinib response in cancer patients. In aggregate, our studies reveal a novel signaling pathway that has an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 18 June 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.220.
    Oncogene 06/2012; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):1-100. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process);5,6 thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4). · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):445-544. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    Autophagy 04/2012; 4454(8):445-544. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):445. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    Autophagy 01/2012; 4454(8):445-544. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    Nikolas Balanis, Cathleen R Carlin
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    ABSTRACT: Extension of the plasma membrane is one of the first steps in cell migration. Understanding how cells "choose" between various types of membrane protrusion enhances our knowledge of both normal and cancer cell physiology. The EGF receptor is a paradigm for understanding how transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases regulate intracellular signaling following ligand stimulation. Evidence from the past decade indicates that EGF receptors also form macromolecular complexes with integrin receptors leading to EGF receptor transactivation during cell adhesion. However, relatively little is known about how these complexes form and impact cell migration. Our recent work characterized a molecular complex between EGF receptor and β3 integrin which recognizes RGD motifs in extracellular matrix proteins. Complex formation requires a dileucine motif (679-LL) in the intracellular juxtamembrane region of the EGF receptor that also controls whether or not the receptor undergoes Src kinase-dependent phosphorylation at Tyr-845. In contrast to wild-type receptors, mutant EGF receptors defective for Tyr-845 phosphorylation form complexes with β1 integrin that also binds RGD motifs. In addition, we have discovered that EGF receptor antagonizes small GTPase RhoA by mediating membrane recruitment of its regulatory GAP p190RhoGAP. In this addendum we discuss a potential new role for Src-dependent EGF receptor transactivation in integrin/EGF receptor complex formation. We also discuss how our study fits with previous observations linking p190RhoGAP to RhoA-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements involved in cell migration, and provide new data that the EGF receptor is compartmentalized to relatively immature zyxin-poor focal adhesions which are the likely site of p190RhoGAP signaling.
    Cellular logistics. 01/2012; 2(1):46-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Active RhoA localizes to plasma membrane, where it stimulates formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers. RhoA activity is inhibited by p190RhoGAP following integrin-mediated cell attachment to allow sampling of new adhesive environments. p190RhoGAP is itself activated by Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation, which facilitates complex formation with p120RasGAP. This complex then translocates to the cell surface, where p190RhoGAP down-regulates RhoA. Here we demonstrate that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cooperates with β3 integrin to regulate p190RhoGAP activity in mouse mammary gland epithelial cells. Adhesion to fibronectin stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR in the absence of receptor ligands. Use of a dominant inhibitory EGFR mutant demonstrates that fibronectin-activated EGFR recruits p120RasGAP to the cell periphery. Expression of an inactive β3 integrin subunit abolishes p190RhoGAP tyrosine phosphorylation, demonstrating a mechanistic link between β3 integrin-activated Src and EGFR regulation of the RhoA inhibitor. The β3 integrin/EGFR pathway also has a positive role in formation of filopodia. Together our data suggest that EGFR constitutes an important intrinsic migratory cue since fibronectin is a key component of the microenvironment in normal mammary gland development and breast cancer. Our data also suggest that EGFR expressed at high levels has a role in eliciting cell shape changes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
    Molecular biology of the cell 09/2011; 22(22):4288-301. · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been less than two decades since the underlying genetic defects in Niemann-Pick disease Type C were first identified. These defects impair function of two proteins with a direct role in lipid trafficking, resulting in deposition of free cholesterol within late endosomal compartments and a multitude of effects on cell function and clinical manifestations. The rapid pace of research in this area has vastly improved our overall understanding of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. Excessive cholesterol buildup has also been implicated in clinical manifestations associated with a number of genetically unrelated diseases including cystic fibrosis. Applying knowledge about anomalous cell signaling behavior in cystic fibrosis opens prospects for identifying similar previously unrecognized disease pathways in Niemann-Pick disease Type C. Recognition that Niemann-Pick disease Type C and cystic fibrosis both impair cholesterol regulatory pathways also provides a rationale for identifying common therapeutic targets.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 09/2011; 515(1-2):54-63. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sorting and maintenance of the EGF receptor on the basolateral surface of renal epithelial cells is perturbed in polycystic kidney disease and apical expression of receptors contributes to severity of disease. The goal of these studies was to understand the molecular basis for EGF receptor missorting using a well-established mouse model for the autosomal recessive form of the disease. We have discovered that multiple basolateral pathways mediate EGF receptor sorting in renal epithelial cells. The polycystic kidney disease allele in this model, Bicc1, interferes with one specific EGF receptor pathway without affecting overall cell polarity. Furthermore one of the pathways is regulated by a latent basolateral sorting signal that restores EGF receptor polarity in cystic renal epithelial cells via passage through a Rab11-positive subapical compartment. These studies give new insights to possible therapies to reconstitute EGF receptor polarity and function in order to curb disease progression. They also indicate for the first time that the Bicc1 gene that is defective in the mouse model used in these studies regulates cargo-specific protein sorting mediated by the epithelial cell specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B.
    Molecular biology of the cell 08/2010; 21(15):2732-45. · 5.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
401.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2014
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • • Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology
      • • Department of Physiology and Biophysics
      • • Department of Medicine (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Molecular Microbiology
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Life Sciences Institute
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 1983–1994
    • Wistar Institute
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1989–1990
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States