[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated maternal intake of SDG (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside), a compound from flaxseed, and flaxseed oil+SDG on biochemical and hormonal parameters of dams and male and female offspring during lactation. Dams were fed a standard diet (C); diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet (SDG) or diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet and 7% of flaxseed oil (OLSDG). SDG and OLSDG dams showed hyperprolactinemia. The OLSDG milk had lower lactose and protein, while the SDG milk had lower protein on the 14th day of lactation. At 14 days, OLSDG male and female pups showed lower body mass, SDG and OLSDG male pups had hypoprolactinemia and lower body fat mass, but higher visceral fat mass (VFM) and hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, male SDG and OLSDG presented hypotriglyceridemia. At 14 days, SDG and OLSDG female offspring showed higher serum 17-β estradiol (E2); OLSDG presented hypercholesterolemia and SDG presented hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, SDG and OLSDG female pups showed hypotriglyceridemia and OLSDG shower lower E2. Both maternal treatments changes maternal metabolism as well as hormonal and biochemical parameters of the offspring, which are gender-dependent. Maternal hyperprolactinemia may act as an imprint factor responsible for the hormonal and metabolic changes observed in the pups.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 05/2012; 50(7):2388-96. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2012.04.040 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that maternal flaxseed supplementation during lactation induces insulin resistance in adult offspring. Here, we studied the effects of maternal dietary flaxseed during lactation on adipocyte morphology and leptin signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis as well as on behavioral traits in the adult progeny.
Lactating rats were fed a control (C) diet or a diet with 25% flaxseed (F). After weaning, pups received a standard diet until postnatal day (PN) 180. Male offspring were killed at PN21 and 180. Data were considered significant at P < 0.05.
Weaned F rats presented a lower total and subcutaneous fat mass and higher subcutaneous adipocyte area (+48%), but at adulthood they presented higher subcutaneous and visceral adipocyte areas (+40% and 1.9-fold increase, respectively), with no change in body fat mass. At PN21, F pups had hyperleptinemia (+69%), lower T(3) (-33%), higher TSH (2.1-fold increase), higher pituitary leptin receptor (Ob-R, +11%), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, +21%), and phosphorylated-STAT3 (p-STAT3, +77%) protein content. Adult F offspring only showed lower T(4) (-28%) and higher thyroid Ob-R (+52%) expression. Maternal flaxseed intake during lactation did not result in behavioral changes in the adult offspring.
Maternal flaxseed supplementation decreases offspring adiposity and increases pituitary leptin signaling at weaning, but it induces hypertrophic adipocytes and higher thyroid leptin receptor in adulthood. The present data suggest that extensive use of flaxseed during lactation is undesirable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flaxseed has several benefits for health such as improvement in lipid profile; and since thyroid hormones increases cholesterol biliary excretion, we decide to evaluate the programming effect of maternal flaxseed diet during lactation upon thyroid hormone metabolism and action in the adult offspring in rats. At birth, lactating rats were divided into: flaxseed dams (F) - diet with 25% of flaxseed - and controls dams (C). F and C pups received normal diet after weaning and male offspring were sacrificed at 21 and 180 days old. We evaluated serum T3, T4, and TSH; type 1 and 2 deiodinase activities (D1 and D2) in the liver, thyroid, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and pituitary; thyroid hormone receptor (TRβ1) expression and mitochondrial glycerophosphate-dehydrogenase activity (GPDm) in the liver. F offspring showed lower T3 levels at weaning (-30%, p<0.05) probably caused by lower liver D1 activity (-32%, p<0.05) and higher TSH levels (+84.6%, p<0.05) characterizing a profile of hypothyroidism. At 180 days old, F offspring had lower T4 and thyroid D1 and D2 activities (-28.3%, -18.5%, and -44.2%, respectively, p<0.05) and higher BAT D2 activity (+34.5%, p<0.05). We suggest that adult F animals present an inappropriate TSH action on the thyroid, since thyroid deiodinase was lower. Serum T3 was normal probably due to a higher BAT D2 activity and may reflect the tissue T3 concentration because liver D1, TRβ1, and GPDm were normal. Thus, maternal flaxseed diet during lactation may affect the thyroid hormones metabolism in a long-term.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 03/2011; 43(6):410-6. DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1275285 · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this article was to evaluate the association between flaxseed intake during lactation and its effects on the reproductive indexes in female offspring at infancy, puberty and adult age.
Two groups were evaluated, an experimental group (FG, n=24) which consumed a flaxseed based diet and a control group (CG, n=26) which had access to a casein based diet. Both of them were fed exclusively with the mentioned diets during all lactation and after weaning the pups received a standard laboratory diet until sacrifice (at weaning, in the moment of vaginal opening or at 90 days old). It was analyzed the puberty onset, estrous cycle, serum estradiol and albumin concentrations, body weight, uterine and ovarian weights.
Estradiol and albumin serum concentrations, body weight, uterine and ovarian relative weights were similar in FG and CG at weaning, at vaginal opening and at 90 days old. There was not significant difference in puberty onset between FG and CG, both had similar body weight at vaginal opening. The length of estrous cycle was similar for both groups. There was no significant difference concerning number of females with irregular estrous cycle, only 2 females had irregular cycle in FG and 3 in the CG. None of the females was acyclic.
Flaxseed intake during lactation did not interfere with sexual maturation and reproductive organs development, suggesting that its consumption during this period is safe for sexual development of female offspring.
Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 01/2010; 25(3):437-42. DOI:10.3305/nh.2010.25.3.4397 · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flaxseed intake has increased owing to beneficial effects to health and prevention of diseases. Provided that it's an important source of lignan, a phytoestrogen, the present study aimed at evaluating the possible effect of the intake of this seed during lactation upon prostate, sexual hormones and lipidic profile of the offspring in adult life.
16 female Wistar rats were used. After delivery, they were divided into two different groups to receive one of the following diets during lactation: Control group (CG), with a casein based diet and Flaxseed group (FG), with a flaxseed based diet containing 25% flaxseed. At weaning, male pups received commercial chow until adult life (170 days old), when they were sacrificed.
No differences were perceived concerning offspring food intake and body weight at 170 days. There was a reduction in total cholesterol levels (FG = 45.71 +/- 8.96 mg/dL; CG = 63.43 +/- 15.69 mg/dL, p = 0.02) and triglycerides (FG = 54.29 +/- 11.10 mg/dL; CG = 79.86 +/- 25.68 mg/dL, p = 0.03). Also, no alterations were observed in prostatic morphology, testosterone or estradiol levels in the two groups analyzed.
Flaxseed intake during lactation did not produce histological alterations in prostatic alveolus or in sexual hormones, but programmed to a reduction in lipid profile in adult life with decreased cardiovascular risk.
Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 01/2010; 25(2):250-5. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effects of maternal dietary flaxseed during lactation on milk composition, body composition and sexual function of the adult female offspring. The dams were fed a control casein diet (C) or flaxseed diet (F, 25%) throughout lactation. F mothers showed higher serum 17beta-estradiol (E2) and leptin at weaning. F mother's milk had lower total cholesterol (TC) and higher E2 and leptin. The offspring of F dams showed lower body mass (BM), body fat mass (BFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), TC and triglycerides (TG) and higher serum leptin and E2 at 21 days. F offspring showed delayed puberty onset. At 150 days, these offspring presented higher BFM, VFM, TC, TG, E2 and lower relative uterine weight and lower progesterone. In conclusion, flaxseed during lactation did affect the lipid profile, adipose tissue and sexual function in adulthood, probably due hyperestrogenism and hyperleptinemia at weaning.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2009; 48(2):697-703. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.051 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of maternal dietary flaxseed during lactation on endocrine and metabolic factors in the adult offspring.
Lactating rats were divided into: (1) Controls (C), diet containing 20% casein; (2) Flaxseed (F), diet with additional 25% of flaxseed, containing 18.9% protein (13.9% from casein and 5% from flaxseed). The treatment started at birth, day 0 (d0) of lactation, and ended at weaning (d21). After weaning, all pups received a standard laboratory diet until 180 days old. Only male offspring were studied and were sacrificed at 21 or 180 days of age. Body composition was evaluated by carcass analysis.
Offspring from F mothers had higher body mass since lactation until adulthood. At 21 days old, they presented lower total and subcutaneous fat mass, higher leptinemia, lower total cholesterol, lower triacylglycerol and lower insulinemia (p<0.05). At 180 days, offspring from F mothers had lower glycemia, higher insulinemia and lower adiponectin (p<0.05) concentrations and they did not show any changes in body composition.
Maternal intake of flaxseed in the diet during lactation produces early insulin sensitivity and hyperleptinemia; these hormonal imprinting factors could program for selective insulin resistance, since the higher insulin serum concentration was not associated with higher adiposity. These findings, associated with lower serum adiponectin concentration in adulthood, could indicate an increased risk for later development of diabetes mellitus.
Life sciences 08/2009; 85(9-10):365-71. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2009.06.018 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade protéica da linhaça quando usada nas fases de crescimento e manutenção em ratos. MÉTODOS: Na primeira etapa utilizaram-se 18 Rattus norvegicus, Wistar, fêmeas, recém-desmamadas, recebendo água e ração à vontade. Estas foram distribuídas em 3 grupos (n=6): grupo linhaça - com dieta à base de linhaça, grupo controle - com dieta à base de caseína, grupo controle modificado - com dieta à base de caseína, com maior concentração de fibras e óleo. Na segunda etapa (após 28 dias de experimento) a dieta do grupo linhaça foi modificada, acrescentou-se 5,4% de caseína. Os demais grupos permaneceram com as mesmas dietas. Todas eram isoenergéticas e continham 10% de proteína. Os animais foram acompanhados até 180 dias de vida. Foram determinados o quociente de eficiência protéica e a albumina nas duas fases do experimento. RESULTADOS: Na primeira etapa, o grupo linhaça obteve quociente de eficiência protéica (0,8, DP=0,05) significantemente menor que o grupo controle (2,3, DP=0,1) e o controle modificado (2,3, DP=0,2). A concentração de albumina do grupo linhaça (3,0, DP=0,04g/dL) foi menor (p<0,01) que a do grupo controle (3,9, DP=0,06g/dL) e a do controle modificado (3,9, DP=0,01g/dL). Já na segunda etapa, o grupo linhaça modificado (1,2, DP=0,1) obteve maior (p<0,01) quociente de eficiência protéica que grupo controle (0,9, DP=0,02) e o controle modificado (0,9, DP=0,05). Não houve diferença significante no teor de albumina entre os grupos, caracterizando a recuperação da desnutrição. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que a linhaça não deve ser utilizada como fonte exclusiva de proteína, principalmente na fase de crescimento.
Revista de Nutrição 08/2009; 22(4):483-491. · 0.50 Impact Factor