Ania T. Deutscher

Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute, Cambelltown, South Australia, Australia

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Publications (11)44.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, regulates the presentation of proteins on its cell surface via endoproteolysis, including those of the cilial adhesin P123 (MHP_0194). These proteolytic cleavage events create functional adhesins that bind to proteoglycans and glycoproteins on the surface of ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells and to the circulatory host molecule plasminogen. Two dominant cleavage events of the P123 preprotein have been previously characterised however immunoblotting studies suggest that more complex processing events occur. These extensive processing events are characterised here. The functional significance of the P97 cleavage fragments is also poorly understood. Affinity chromatography using heparin, fibronectin and plasminogen as bait and peptide arrays were used to expand our knowledge of the adhesive capabilities of P123 cleavage fragments and characterise a novel binding motif in the C-terminus of P123. Further, we use immunohistochemistry to examine in-vivo, the biological significance of interactions between M. hyopneumoniae and fibronectin and show that M. hyopneumoniae induces fibronectin deposition at the site of infection on the ciliated epithelium. This supports a hypothesis that M. hyopneumoniae possesses the molecular armoury to interact with and elicit responses from its host.
    Cellular Microbiology 10/2014; · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P97 and P102 paralogues occur as endoproteolytic cleavage fragments on the surface of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae that bind glycosaminoglycans, plasminogen, and fibronectin and perform essential roles in colonization of ciliated epithelia. We show that the P102 paralogue Mhp384 is efficiently cleaved at an S/T-X-F↓X-D/E-like site, creating P60(384) and P50(384). The P97 paralogue Mhp385 is inefficiently cleaved, with tryptic peptides from a 115 kDa protein (P115(385)) and 88 kDa (P88(385)) and 27 kDa (P27(385)) cleavage fragments identified by LC-MS/MS. This is the first time a preprotein belonging to the P97 and P102 paralogue families has been identified by mass spectrometry. The semitryptic peptide (752)IQFELEPISLNV(763) denotes the C-terminus of P88(385) and defines the novel cleavage site (761)L-N-V↓A-V-S(766) in Mhp385. P115(385), P88(385), P27(385), P60(384), and P50(384) were shown to reside extracellularly, though it is unknown how the fragments remain attached to the cell surface. Heparin- and cilium-binding sites were identified within P60(384), P50(384), and P88(385). No primary function was attributed to P27(385); however, this molecule contains four tandem R1 repeats with similarity to porcine collagen type VI (α3 chain). P97 and P102 paralogue families are adhesins targeted by several proteases with different cleavage efficiencies, and this process generates combinatorial complexity on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae.
    Journal of Proteome Research 03/2012; 11(3):1924-36. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes enormous economic losses to swine production worldwide by colonizing the ciliated epithelium in the porcine respiratory tract, resulting in widespread damage to the mucociliary escalator, prolonged inflammation, reduced weight gain, and secondary infections. Protein Mhp684 (P146) comprises 1,317 amino acids, and while the N-terminal 400 residues display significant sequence identity to the archetype cilium adhesin P97, the remainder of the molecule is novel and displays unusual motifs. Proteome analysis shows that P146 preprotein is endogenously cleaved into three major fragments identified here as P50(P146), P40(P146), and P85(P146) that reside on the cell surface. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified a semitryptic peptide that delineated a major cleavage site in Mhp684. Cleavage occurred at the phenylalanine residue within sequence (672)ATEF↓QQ(677), consistent with a cleavage motif resembling S/T-X-F↓X-D/E recently identified in Mhp683 and other P97/P102 family members. Biotinylated surface proteins recovered by avidin chromatography and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) showed that more-extensive endoproteolytic cleavage of P146 occurs. Recombinant fragments F1(P146)-F3(P146) that mimic P50(P146), P40(P146), and P85(P146) were constructed and shown to bind porcine epithelial cilia and biotinylated heparin with physiologically relevant affinity. Recombinant versions of F3(P146) generated from M. hyopneumoniae strain J and 232 sequences strongly bind porcine plasminogen, and the removal of their respective C-terminal lysine and arginine residues significantly reduces this interaction. These data reveal that P146 is an extensively processed, multifunctional adhesin of M. hyopneumoniae. Extensive cleavage coupled with variable cleavage efficiency provides a mechanism by which M. hyopneumoniae regulates protein topography. IMPORTANCE: Vaccines used to control Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection provide only partial protection. Proteins of the P97/P102 families are highly expressed, functionally redundant molecules that are substrates of endoproteases that generate multifunctional adhesin fragments on the cell surface. We show that P146 displays a chimeric structure consisting of an N terminus, which shares sequence identity with P97, and novel central and C-terminal regions. P146 is endoproteolytically processed at multiple sites, generating at least nine fragments on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae. Dominant cleavage events occurred at S/T-X-F↓X-D/E-like sites generating P50(P146), P40(P146), and P85(P146). Recombinant proteins designed to mimic the major cleavage fragments bind porcine cilia, heparin, and plasminogen. P146 undergoes endoproteolytic processing events at multiple sites and with differential processing efficiency, generating combinatorial diversity on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae.
    mBio 01/2012; 3(2). · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a major, economically damaging respiratory pathogen. Although M. hyopneumoniae cells bind plasminogen, the identification of plasminogen-binding surface proteins and the biological ramifications of acquiring plasminogen requires further investigation. mhp182 encodes a highly expressed 102 kDa protein (P102) that undergoes proteolytic processing to generate surface-located N-terminal 60 kDa (P60) and C-terminal 42 kDa (P42) proteins of unknown function. We show that recombinant P102 (rP102) binds plasminogen at physiologically relevant concentrations (KD ∼ 76 nM) increasing the susceptibility of plasmin(ogen) to activation by tissue-specific plasminogen activator (tPA). Recombinant proteins constructed to mimic P60 (rP60) and P42 (rP42) also bound plasminogen at physiologically significant levels. M. hyopneumoniae surface-bound plasminogen was activated by tPA and is able to degrade fibrinogen, demonstrating the biological functionality of M. hyopneumoniae-bound plasmin(ogen) upon activation. Plasmin(ogen) was readily detected in porcine ciliated airways and plasmin levels were consistently higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from M. hyopneumoniae-infected animals. Additionally, rP102 and rP42 bind fibronectin with KDs of 26 and 33 nM respectively and recombinant P102 proteins promote adherence to porcine kidney epithelial-like cells. The multifunctional binding ability of P102 and activation of M. hyopneumoniae-sequestered plasmin(ogen) by an exogenous activator suggests P102 plays an important role in virulence.
    Cellular Microbiology 11/2011; 14(1):81 - 94. · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative pathogen of porcine enzootic pneumonia, an economically significant disease that disrupts the mucociliary escalator in the swine respiratory tract. Expression of Mhp107, a P97 paralog encoded by the gene mhp107, was confirmed using ESI-MS/MS. To investigate the function of Mhp107, three recombinant proteins, F1(Mhp107), F2(Mhp107), and F3(Mhp107), spanning the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of Mhp107 were constructed. Colonization of swine by M. hyopneumoniae requires adherence of the bacterium to ciliated cells of the respiratory tract. Recent studies have identified a number of M. hyopneumoniae adhesins that bind heparin, fibronectin, and plasminogen. F1(Mhp107) was found to bind porcine heparin (K(D) ∼90 nM) in a dose-dependent and saturable manner, whereas F3(Mhp107) bound fibronectin (K(D) ∼180 nM) at physiologically relevant concentrations. F1(Mhp107) also bound porcine plasminogen (K(D) = 24 nM) in a dose-dependent and physiologically relevant manner. Microspheres coated with F3(Mhp107) mediate adherence to porcine kidney epithelial-like (PK15) cells, and all three recombinant proteins (F1(Mhp107)-F3(Mhp107)) bound swine respiratory cilia. Together, these findings indicate that Mhp107 is a member of the multifunctional M. hyopneumoniae adhesin family of surface proteins and contributes to both adherence to the host and pathogenesis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(12):10097-104. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine enzootic pneumonia is a chronic respiratory disease that affects swine. The etiological agent of the disease, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is a bacterium that adheres to cilia of the swine respiratory tract, resulting in loss of cilia and epithelial cell damage. A M. hyopneumoniae protein P116, encoded by mhp108, was investigated as a potential adhesin. Examination of P116 expression using proteomic analyses observed P116 as a full-length protein and also as fragments, ranging from 17 to 70 kDa in size. A variety of pathogenic bacterial species have been shown to bind the extracellular matrix component fibronectin as an adherence mechanism. M. hyopneumoniae cells were found to bind fibronectin in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. Surface plasmon resonance was used to show that a recombinant C-terminal domain of P116 bound fibronectin at physiologically relevant concentrations (K(D) 24 ± 6 nm). Plasmin(ogen)-binding proteins are also expressed by many bacterial pathogens, facilitating extracellular matrix degradation. M. hyopneumoniae cells were found to also bind plasminogen in a dose-dependent and saturable manner; the C-terminal domain of P116 binds to plasminogen (K(D) 44 ± 5 nm). Plasminogen binding was abolished when the C-terminal lysine of P116 was deleted, implicating this residue as part of the plasminogen binding site. P116 fragments adhere to the PK15 porcine kidney epithelial-like cell line and swine respiratory cilia. Collectively these data suggest that P116 is an important adhesin and virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(44):33971-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine enzootic pneumonia is a chronic respiratory disease that affects swine. The etiological agent of the disease, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is a bacterium that adheres to cilia of the swine respiratory tract, resulting in loss of cilia and epithelial cell damage. A M. hyopneumoniae protein P116, encoded by mhp108, was investigated as a potential adhesin. Examination of P116 expression using proteomic analyses observed P116 as a full-length protein and also as fragments, ranging from 17 to 70 kDa in size. A variety of pathogenic bacterial species have been shown to bind the extracellular matrix component fibronectin as an adherence mechanism. M. hyopneumoniae cells were found to bind fibronectin in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. Surface plasmon resonance was used to show that a recombinant C-terminal domain of P116 bound fibronectin at physiologically relevant concentrations (KD 24 ± 6 nm). Plasmin(ogen)-binding proteins are also expressed by many bacterial pathogens, facilitating extracellular matrix degradation. M. hyopneumoniae cells were found to also bind plasminogen in a dose-dependent and saturable manner; the C-terminal domain of P116 binds to plasminogen (KD 44 ± 5 nm). Plasminogen binding was abolished when the C-terminal lysine of P116 was deleted, implicating this residue as part of the plasminogen binding site. P116 fragments adhere to the PK15 porcine kidney epithelial-like cell line and swine respiratory cilia. Collectively these data suggest that P116 is an important adhesin and virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(44):33971-33978. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, adheres to ciliated respiratory epithelia resulting in ciliostasis and epithelial cell death. The cilium adhesin P97 (Mhp183) contains two repeat regions, designated R1 and R2, that play key roles in adherence. Eight pentapeptide repeats in R1 are sufficient to bind porcine cilia; however, both R1 and R2 are needed to bind heparin. Mhp271, a paralogue of P97, is the only other M. hyopneumoniae protein to contain both R1 and R2 repeats. These repeats are arranged as a set of three pentapeptide repeats (designated R1A271), two decapeptide repeats (designated R2271), and a second set of six pentapeptide repeats (designated R1B271). To determine their function, recombinant proteins containing R1A271 (F1271) and R2271-R1B271 (F2271) were constructed and used in in vitro binding assays. F2271, but not F1271, bound heparin (KD = 8.1 ± 0.4 nM), fibronectin (KD = 174 ± 13 nM) and porcine cilia. Pre-incubation of F2271 with 100 µM heparin blocked cilium binding by ∼69%. Cell surface shaving with trypsin combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified Mhp271 as surface-exposed. Our data suggest that both R1 and R2 in Mhp271 are involved in binding to host molecules.
    Molecular Microbiology 09/2010; 78(2):444 - 458. · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni is a major gastrointestinal pathogen that colonizes host mucosa via interactions with extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin (Fn). Fn-binding is mediated by a 37 kDa outer membrane protein termed Campylobacter adherence Factor (CadF). The outer membrane protein profile of a recent gastrointestinal C. jejuni clinical isolate (JHH1) was analysed using 2-DE and MS. Several spots were identified as products of the cadF gene. These included mass and pI variants of 34 and 30 kDa, as well as 24 kDa (CadF(24)) and 22 kDa (CadF(22)) mass variants. CadF variants were fully characterized by MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-MS/MS. These data confirmed that CadF forms re-folding variants resulting in spots with lower mass and varying pI that are identical at the amino acid sequence level and are not modified post-translationally. CadF(22) and CadF(24), however, were characterized as N-terminal, membrane-associated polypeptides resulting from cleavage between serine(195) and leucine(196), and glycine(201) and phenylalanine(202), respectively. These variants were more abundant in the virulent (O) isolate of C. jejuni NCTC11168 when compared with the avirulent (genome sequenced) isolate. Hexahistidine fusion constructs of full-length CadF (34 kDa), CadF(24), and the deleted C-terminal OmpA domain (14 kDa; CadF(14)) were created in Escherichia coli. Recombinant CadF variants were probed against patient sera and revealed that only full-length CadF retained reactivity. Binding assays showed that CadF(24) retained Fn-binding capability, while CadF(14) did not bind Fn. These data suggest that the immunogenic epitope of CadF is cleaved to generate smaller Fn-binding polypeptides, which are not recognized by the host humoral response. CadF cleavage therefore may be associated with virulence in C. jejuni.
    Proteomics 11/2009; 10(2):277-88. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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Publication Stats

75 Citations
44.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute
      Cambelltown, South Australia, Australia
  • 2011
    • University of Queensland 
      • Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Wollongong
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia