Uma Maheswari Krishnan

SASTRA University, Tanjor, Tamil Nadu, India

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Publications (99)334.97 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nano delivery systems have significantly evolved over the last decade for the treatment of cancer by enabling site-specific delivery and improved bioavailability. The widely investigated nanoparticle systems are biodegradable polyesters, dendrimers, liposomes, mesoporous silica and gold nanoparticles. These particles when conjugated with different targeting motifs enhance the therapeutic efficiency of the drug molecules and biocompatibility. However, the application of such systems towards the treatment of retinoblastoma (RB), a rapidly spreading childhood eye cancer, still remains in its infancy. Nanoparticle-based systems that have been investigated for RB therapy have displayed improved drug delivery to the most restricted posterior segment of the eyes and have increased intra-vitreal half-life of the chemotherapy agents highlighting its potential in treatment of this form of cancer. This review focuses on the challenges involved in the treatment of RB and highlights the attempts made to develop nano-dimensional systems for the treatment of RB.
    Drug Delivery 02/2015; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: A major limitation in gene delivery applications employing nanocarriers is the inflammatory response elicited when administered in vivo. The mode of complexation of the oligonucleotide with the carrier can alter its interactions with biomolecules, a fact that has not been explored for lipoplexes hitherto. Materials: Liposomes prepared by thin film hydration were used to form lipoplexes of si-RNA and DNA, which exhibited a smaller size and a shift towards negative zeta potential when compared with blank liposomes. Results: The oligonucleotides wrap over the liposome surface and the surface coverage depends on the number of base pairs. The colloidal stability, protein resistance and cell uptake of lipoplexes were found to be dependent on surface charge and PEG. The lipoplexes with si-RNA did not induce cytokine production in BALB/c mice. Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of PEGylation for achieving good protein resistance without compromising cell uptake and therapeutic efficiency.
    Nano world scientic publisher. 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional liver scaffolds are temporary framework that mimics native ECM architecture and positively influence hepatocyte lodging, proliferation with retention of metabolic activities. The aim of the current study is to develop galactose containing physical cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin (P/G 8:2 and 9:1) hydrogel scaffolds via freeze/thaw technique. The 8:2 and 9:1 P/G hydrogels exhibited comparable pore size and porosity (P > 0.05). The tensile strength of the fabricated 8:2 and 9:1 P/G hydrogel scaffolds were found to be in accordance with native human liver. Pore interconnectivity of both the P/G hydrogel scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron micrographs and liquid displacement method. Further galactose containing hydrogel promoted cell-cell and cell-hydrogel interaction, aiding cellular aggregation leading to spheroids formation compared to void P/G hydrogel by 7 days. Hence, galactose containing P/G hydrogel could be more promising substrate as it showed significantly higher cell proliferation and albumin secretion for 21 days when compared to non-galactose P/G hydrogels (P < 0.05).
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 01/2015; 26(1):5345. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regeneration of functional small diameter blood vessels still remains a challenge, as the synthetic vascular grafts fail to mimic the complex structural architecture and dynamic functions of blood vessels and also lack with the lack of non-thrombogenicity. Although, the existence of nanofibrous extracellular matrix components in the native tissue promotes many physical and molecular signals to the endothelial cells for the regulation of morphogenesis, homeostasis, and cellular functions in vascular tissue, poor understanding of the structural architecture on the functional activation of appropriate genes limits the development of successful vascular graft design. Hence, the present review outlines the functional contributions of various nanofibrous extracellular matrix components in native blood vessels. Further, the review focuses on the role of nanofiber topography of biomaterial scaffolds in endothelial cell fate processes such as adhesion, proliferation, migration, and infiltration with the expression of vasculature specific genes; thereby allowing the reader to envisage the communication between the nano-architecture of scaffolds and endothelial cells in engineering small diameter vascular grafts.
    Biotechnology Journal 01/2015; 10(1). · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the currently employed therapeutic intervention against AIDS where a drug combination is used to reduce the viral load. The present work envisages the development of a stealth Anti-CD4 conjugated immunoliposomes containing two anti-retroviral drugs (nevirapine and saquinavir) that can selectively home into HIV infected cells through the CD4 receptor. The nanocarrier was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, particle size and zeta potential. The cell uptake was also evaluated qualitatively using confocal microscopy and quantitatively by flow cytometry. The drug to lipid composition was optimized for maximum encapsulation of the two drugs. Both drugs were found to localize in different regions of the liposome. The release of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor was dominant during the early phases of the release while in the later phases, the protease inhibitor is the major constituent released. The drugs delivered via Anti-CD4 conjugated immunoliposomesss inhibited viral proliferation at a significantly lower concentration as compared to free drugs. In vitro studies of nevirapine to saquinavir combination at a ratio of 6.2:5 and a concentration as low as 5 ng/mL efficiently blocked viral proliferation suggesting that co-delivery of anti-retroviral drugs holds a greater promise for efficient management of HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 12/2014; 89. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tunable textural properties of self-oriented mesoporous silica were investigated for their suitability as enzyme immobilization matrices to support transesterification of rice bran oil. Different morphologies of mesoporous silica (rod-like, rice-like, and spherical) were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The surface area, pore size, and ordered arrangement of the pores were found to influence the immobilization and activity of the enzyme in the mesopores. The immobilization in rod-like silica was highest with an immobilization efficiency of 63 % and exhibited minimal activity loss after immobilization. Functionalization of the mesoporous surface with ethyl groups further enhanced the enzyme immobilization. The free enzyme lost most of its activity at 50 °C while the immobilized enzyme showed activity even up to 60 °C. Transesterified product yield of nearly 82 % was obtained for 24 h of reaction with enzyme immobilized on ethyl-functionalized SBA-15 at an oil:methanol ratio of 1:3. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to characterize the transesterified product obtained. The reusability of the immobilized enzyme was studied for 3 cycles.
    Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 12/2014; · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The membrane interactions and localization of flavonoids play a vital role in altering membrane-mediated cell signaling cascades as well as influence the pharmacological activities such as anti-tumour, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties of flavonoids. Various techniques have been used to investigate the membrane interaction of flavonoids. These include partition coefficient, fluorescence anisotropy, differential scanning calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, electrophysiological methods and molecular dynamics simulations. Each technique will provide specific information about either alteration of membrane fluidity or localization of flavonoids within the lipid bilayer. Apart from the diverse techniques employed, the concentrations of flavonoids and lipid membrane composition employed in various studies reported in literature also are different and together these variables contribute to diverse findings that sometimes contradict each other. This review highlights different techniques employed to investigate the membrane interaction of flavonoids with special emphasis on erythrocyte model membrane systems and their significance in understanding the nature and extent of flavonoid-membrane interactions. We also attempt to correlate the membrane localization and alteration in membrane fluidity with the biological activities of flavonoids such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Progress in Lipid Research 12/2014; 58. · 12.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In view of the difficulties in finding the precise value of Michaelis-Menten constant (K M) and maximum net current (I max) of a biosensor from linear plots, we framed two modified non-linear equations employing Michaelis-Menten equation. In this work, data of lactate detecting sensor were used to exemplify practicability and accuracy of the modified Michaelis-Menten equation. Standard and modified Michaelis-Menten model was normalized using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The validity of the two modified Michaelis-Menten models was statistically analyzed using numerical error analysis, unpaired student t-Test and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) method, and the results were satisfactory. This method is quite easy and has assured convergence with no initial guess for K M and I max .
    Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience 12/2014; 11(12). · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Precise estimation of Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) and maximum rate of reaction (V max ) is very significant in studying enzyme inhibition as well as the catalytic efficiency of the immobilized enzyme in electrochemical nanointerface based biosensors. Generally linear regression models such as Lineweaver-Burk plot, Eadie-Hosftee plot, Eadie-Scatchard plot and Hanes-Woolf plot have been used to estimate enzyme kinetic parameters. But, the disadvantage of using linear regression plots is changing error statistics. As an alternative to linear regression models, three nonlinear regression models namely Gauss Newton plot, Chi Square plot and Levenberg-Marquardt fit (LVM) have been used, which fits the data by successive iterations. In this work, a sample data of lactate detect- ing electrochemical biosensor (Au/Nano-ZnO/LDH) has been considered for the precise estimation of K m and V max by employing nonlinear mathematical tools. Finally regression, residual, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, Chi Square, residual sum of squares and percent average relative error analyses are carried out on the adapted nonlinear mathematical models to choose optimized Michaelis-Menten equation.
    Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience 12/2014; 11(12). · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the emerging co-morbidities of skin inflammation. Occurrence of skin inflammation such as psoriasis is substantially higher in NAFLD patients than normal. Currently, there are no animal models to study the interaction between these co-morbidities. Objective: The present study seeks to develop a simple mouse model of NAFLD-enhanced skin inflammation and to study the effect of NAFLD on different parameters of skin inflammation. Materials and method: Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD were induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal) and high fructose liquid (HFL, 40% kcal) in drinking water. Skin inflammation was induced by repeated application of oxazolone (1% sensitization and repeated 0.5% challenge) in both normal and NAFLD mice and various parameters of skin inflammation and NAFLD were measured. Results: HFD and HFL diet induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and histological features of NAFLD in mice. Oxazolone challenge significantly increased ear thickness, ear weight, MPO activity, NF-κB activity, and histological features of skin inflammation in NAFLD mice as compared with normal mice. Overall, induction of oxazolone-induced skin inflammation was more prominent in NAFLD mice than normal mice. Hence, HFD and HFL diet followed by topical oxazolone application develops metabolic syndrome, NAFLD, and enhanced skin inflammation in mice. Discussion and conclusion: This simple model can be utilized to evaluate a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD with skin inflammation and also to understand the nexus between these co-morbidities.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 11/2014; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: RNA interference (RNAi) technology using short interfering RNA (si-RNA) has shown immense potential in the treatment of cancers through silencing of specific genes. Cationic non-viral vectors employed for gene delivery exhibit toxic effects in normal cells limiting their widespread use, therefore, site-specific delivery using benign carriers could address this issue. Objective: Design of a non-toxic carrier that enables site-specific delivery of si-RNA into the cancer cells is of prime importance to realize the promise of gene silencing. Methods: In the present study, non-cationic liposomes encapsulating si-RNA against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) were developed and characterized for encapsulation efficiency, colloidal stability,in vitro andin vivo gene silencing efficacy. Results: PEGylated liposomes containing phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine exhibited maximumsi-RNA encapsulation efficiency of 47%, zeta potential of -21 mV, phase transition temperature of 51C and good colloidal stability in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) and plasma protein (PP) at 37 C. Conjugation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody to the liposomes resulted in enhanced cell internalization and superior down-regulation of EpCAM gene in MCF-7 cell lines when compared with free si-RNA and the non-targeted liposomes. In vivo evaluation of immunoliposomes for their efficacy in regressing the tumor volume in Balb/c SCID mice showed about 35% reduction of tumor volume in comparison with the positive control when administered with an extremely low dose of 0.15 mg/kg twice a week for 4 weeks. Conclusion: Our results exhibit that the nanocarrier-mediated silencing of EpCAM gene is a promising strategy to treat epithelial cancers.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: RNA interference (RNAi) technology using short interfering RNA (si-RNA) has shown immense potential in the treatment of cancers through silencing of specific genes. Cationic non-viral vectors employed for gene delivery exhibit toxic effects in normal cells limiting their widespread use, therefore, site-specific delivery using benign carriers could address this issue. Objective: Design of a non-toxic carrier that enables site-specific delivery of si-RNA into the cancer cells is of prime importance to realize the promise of gene silencing. Methods: In the present study, non-cationic liposomes encapsulating si-RNA against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) were developed and characterized for encapsulation efficiency, colloidal stability, in vitro and in vivo gene silencing efficacy. Results: PEGylated liposomes containing phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine exhibited maximum si-RNA encapsulation efficiency of 47%, zeta potential of -21 mV, phase transition temperature of 51 °C and good colloidal stability in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) and plasma protein (PP) at 37 °C. Conjugation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody to the liposomes resulted in enhanced cell internalization and superior down-regulation of EpCAM gene in MCF-7 cell lines when compared with free si-RNA and the non-targeted liposomes. In vivo evaluation of immunoliposomes for their efficacy in regressing the tumor volume in Balb/c SCID mice showed about 35% reduction of tumor volume in comparison with the positive control when administered with an extremely low dose of 0.15 mg/kg twice a week for 4 weeks. Conclusion: Our results exhibit that the nanocarrier-mediated silencing of EpCAM gene is a promising strategy to treat epithelial cancers.
    Drug Delivery 11/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chandraprabha Vati (CPV), a multi-ingredient phyto formulation, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. In this study, we attempt to elucidate the mode of action of CPV. We specifically focus on the effects of CPV on the transcriptional regulation of Pregnane-X-Receptor (PXR) and its subsequent effects on interleukins, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) and type 4 Glucose Transporter (GLUT4). Our results show that CPV up-regulates PXR moderately in contrast to its individual ingredients such as chebulinic acid or linalool that down regulate PXR. Further, the expression of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the gene involved in drug elimination, is only moderately up-regulated by CPV, again in contrast to the effect of some of its ingredients. CPV down regulates the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulates the levels of PPARγ, which in turn upregulates GLUT4 expression. These together suggest that the therapeutic properties of CPV can be attributed to its multi-pronged action, viz., prevention of inflammation, moderate expression of PXR that activates several downstream pathways and tight regulation of CYP3A4 thereby slowing down the elimination of the chemical constituents. In addition, these results emphasize on the need for multi-ingredient approach towards designing effective therapeutic formulations.
    RSC Advances 11/2014; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    L.R. Jaidev, Uma Maheswari Krishnan, Swaminathan Sethuraman
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cancer with 85% mortality rate in USA alone and it is prevalent in many other developed and developing countries. Clinically, gemcitabine is prescribed as the first line chemotherapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer treatment. Gemcitabine-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres were synthesized and their physico-chemical properties were evaluated. The FESEM images showed that the gemcitabine loaded and blank nanospheres were 180 nm and 200 nm, respectively. The optimized encapsulation efficiency of gemcitabine was 15%. It was observed that 100% of gemcitabine was released from the PLGA nanospheres for 41 days in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4. The uptake of nanospheres in MiaPaCa-2 cells was studied using sulforhodamine B loaded PLGA nanospheres and our results showed that the nanospheres were taken up within 3 h. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of PLGA nanospheres loaded with gemcitabine showed a relative decrease in IC50 in MiaPaCa-2 and ASPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells in comparison to free gemcitabine. The study demonstrates that this system hold promise to improve the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine in vitro.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 11/2014; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rasasindura is a mercury-based nanopowder synthesized using natural products through mechanothermal processing. It has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial for various therapeutic purposes such as rejuvenation, treatment of syphilis and in genital disorders. Rasasindura is said to be composed of mercury, sulphur and organic moieties derived from the decoction of plant extracts used during its synthesis. There is little scientific understanding of the preparation process so far. Though metallic mercury is incorporated deliberately for therapeutic purposes, it certainly raises toxicity concerns. The lack of gold standards in manufacturing of such drugs leads to a variation in the chemical composition of the final product. The objective of the present study was to assess the physicochemical properties of Rasasindura samples of different batches purchased from different manufacturers and assess the extent of deviation and gauge its impact on human health. Modern characterization techniques were employed to analyze particle size and morphology, surface area, zeta potential, elemental composition, crystallinity, thermal stability and degradation. Average particle size of the samples observed through scanning electron microscope ranged from 5-100 nm. Mercury content was found to be between 84 and 89% from elemental analysis. Despite batch-to-batch and manufacturer-to-manufacturer variations in the physicochemical properties, all the samples contained mercury in the form of HgS. These differences in the physicochemical properties may ultimately impact its biological outcome.
    Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 11/2014; · 0.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atorvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. Studies have evaluated the utility of statins in the treatment of skin inflammation but with varied results. In the present study, we investigated the effect of atorvastatin on TNF-α release and keratinocyte proliferation in vitro and in acute and chronic 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin inflammation in vivo. Atorvastatin significantly inhibited lipopolysacharide induced TNF-α release in THP-1 cells and keratinocyte proliferation in HaCaT cells. In an acute study, topical atorvastatin showed dose dependent reduction in TPA induced skin inflammation with highest efficacy observed at 500 µg/ear dose. In chronic study, topical atorvastatin significantly reduced TPA induced ear thickness, ear weight, cutaneous cytokines, MPO activity and improved histopathological features comparable to that of dexamethasone. Atorvastatin also inhibited TPA stimulated NF-κB activation in mouse ear. In conclusion, our results suggest that atorvastatin ameliorates TPA induced skin inflammation in mice at least in part, due to inhibition of cytokine release and NF-κB activation and may be beneficial for the treatment skin inflammation like psoriasis.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 10/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ellagic acid, a naturally occurring polyphenol was encapsulated in chitosan particles prepared by ionotropic gelation and characterized for its physicochemical properties. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 49% was achieved. The blood clotting time and clot retraction time were calculated for different concentrations of ellagic acid, chitosan and ellagic acid-encapsulated chitosan. A reduction of 34% in the clot time and 16.4% in the retraction time was observed in ellagic acid-encapsulated chitosan when compared with free ellagic acid at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/mL. The physical blend in comparison to free ellagic acid displayed a reduction of 13.8% and 4.6% in the clotting time and retraction time respectively under similar conditions. This suggests that the encapsulation of ellagic acid favors thrombosis due to synergistic action of chitosan and ellagic acid on same molecular targets. This study demonstrates the potential of ellagic acid–chitosan system as an effective anti-hemorrhagic system.
    Carbohydrate Polymers 10/2014; 111:215–221. · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Purushothaman Kuppan, Swaminathan Sethuraman, Uma Maheswari Krishnan
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    ABSTRACT: PCL and PCL-gelatin random and aligned nanofibers with diameters in the range of 200-400 nm were developed through electrospinning. Mechanical properties of aligned PCL and PCL-gelatin nanofibers were compared, and it was found that aligned PCL nanofibers showed significantly higher tensile strength and Young's modulus than the PCL-gelatin nanofiber system (p<0.05). The in vitro degradation of aligned nanofibers showed that PCL-gelatin nanofibers degrade faster than aligned PCL nanofibers. Further, human smooth muscle cells (hSMCs) were cultured on the random and aligned PCL-gelatin nanofibers and evaluated for adhesion, orientation, morphology, viability, proliferation and gene expression. Our results demonstrate that PCL-gelatin promotes higher cell adhesion and proliferation than the PCL nanofibers after 3, 7 and 10 days of culture. Aligned topography favored orientation of the cells along their directions and cell stretching was better in aligned nanofibers than the random nanofibers. The up-regulation of α-actin, myosin heavy chain, collagen type I and elastin genes demonstrate good cell-matrix interactions in both random and aligned scaffolds. Therefore, the present study concludes that aligned PCL-gelatin nanofibers could serve as potential scaffolding for culture of smooth muscle cells and may promote functional regeneration of tubular organs.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 10/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa), from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo) lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa), retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01) of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis) and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106568. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flavonoid glycosides are a group of polyphenols with different glycoside substituents that possess diverse pharmacological activities albeit with lesser potency than their aglycone counterparts. Complexation with transition metal ions may alter their pharmacological activity, but this facet has remained unexplored thus far. Therefore, the present study aims to synthesize copper and iron complexes of naringin and investigate their nature of membrane interactions employing erythrocyte membrane models. An attempt to correlate their interaction and localization in the membrane with their cytotoxic effects was also made. Hypotonic hemolysis experiments carried out in the presence of naringin or its complexes with copper or iron reveals their different extent of penetration in to the membrane. Naringin and naringin-iron were found to preferentially interact with the membrane surface when compared with naringin-copper. The transformation of erythrocyte membrane from the normal discoidal shape to an echinocyte form induced by the addition of naringin, naringin-copper and naringin-iron complex suggests their interaction with the outer leaflet of erythrocyte membrane. Naringin-copper exhibited the maximum tendency to alter the morphology of erythrocyte membranes. The copper and iron complexes of naringin exhibit superior cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cancer cells that can be a manifestation of their degree of perturbation of the membrane architecture as well as different levels of activation of various molecular targets.
    RSC Advances 09/2014; · 3.71 Impact Factor