[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test fasting glucose association at four loci recently identified or verified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies of European populations, we performed a replication study in two Asian populations.
We genotyped five common variants previously reported in Europeans: rs1799884 (GCK), rs780094 (GCKR), rs560887 (G6PC2-ABCB11) and both rs1387153 and rs10830963 (MTNR1B) in the general Japanese (n = 4,813) and Sri Lankan (n = 2,319) populations. To identify novel variants, we further examined genetic associations near each locus by using GWA scan data on 776 non-diabetic Japanese samples.
Fasting glucose association was replicated for the five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at p < 0.05 (one-tailed test) in South Asians (Sri Lankan) as well as in East Asians (Japanese). In fine-mapping by GWA scan data, we identified in the G6PC2-ABCB11 region a novel SNP, rs3755157, with significant association in Japanese (p = 2.6 x 10(-8)) and Sri Lankan (p = 0.001) populations. The strength of association was more prominent at rs3755157 than that of the original SNP rs560887, with allelic heterogeneity detected between the SNPs. On analysing the cumulative effect of associated SNPs, we found the per-allele gradients (beta = 0.055 and 0.069 mmol/l in Japanese and Sri Lankans, respectively) to be almost equivalent to those reported in Europeans.
Fasting glucose association at four tested loci was proven to be replicable across ethnic groups. Despite this overall consistency, ethnic diversity in the pattern and strength of linkage disequilibrium certainly exists and can help to appreciably reduce potential causal variants after GWA studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effectiveness of combined iron and zinc over the iron or zinc-only supplementation in correcting deficiency and possible interactive effects in a group of adolescent school children.
Schoolchildren (n=821) of 12-16 years of age were randomized into four groups and supplemented with iron (50 mg/day), zinc (14 mg/day), iron+zinc or placebo capsules 5 days per week for 24 weeks. Anthropometry, and haemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc (SZn) and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were determined before and after the intervention.
There were no significant effects between-groups in their weight, height and Hb concentrations with the intervention when compared with the placebo group. Iron-only and combination-supplemented groups had reached mean SF concentrations of 55.1 microg/l with no difference between them (P=0.99). The zinc-only group had a mean change of 4.3 micromol//l whereas the combine-supplemented group had a mean change of 4.0 micromol/l (P=0.82). The prevalence of anaemia was found to be 70.3% in the iron group at baseline; this was reduced to 14.5% after the supplementation. In the combine-supplemented group anaemia, prevalence was reduced from 64.8 to 19.3%.
Zinc alone or in combination with iron has not shown a significant improvement in growth in adolescence. Severe and moderate forms of anaemia were successfully treated in children who received iron supplementation. Initial high prevalence of low SZn and iron stores was significantly improved with micronutrient supplementation.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2008; 62(7):856-65. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth and dietary intake data are essential for formulation of nutritional policies and interventions for children.
945 school children (11-16 years) were subjected to growth assessment and their nutrient intake was determined using the 24-hour dietary recall method on three consecutive days.
21.3% of boys and 21.1% of girls were stunted (-2SD below the median height-for-age). 141 (14.9%) children were both stunted and wasted (-2 SD below the median weight-for-age). Mean body mass index of girls was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than boys at all ages. The mean daily dietary intake of energy was 3.2 (+/- 2.4) MJ, protein 29.1 (+/- 2.1) g, fat 4.5 (+/- 1.1) g, iron 11.5 (+/- 1.0) mg, and zinc 0.8 (+/- 0.7) mg among boys. Among girls, energy intake was 4.2 (+/- 1.8) MJ, protein 29.0 (+/- 2.3) g, fat 4.4 (+/- 1.0) g, iron 11.4 (+/- 1.0) mg, and zinc 0.5 (+/- 0.6) mg. Fat comprised about 4.0% of the daily energy intake.
High rate of growth deficiency and undernutrition among adolescents mandates innovative nutritional intervention strategies. The observed mean intakes of nutrients in the sample showed a worrisome deviation from the recommendations of the dietary guidelines for Sri Lanka.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc and folate) in Sri Lankan adolescent school children and the extent to which multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in this population, a cross-sectional survey (2003) in the Galle district of the micronutrient and anthropometric status of 945 school children of ages 12-16 years was performed. The prevalence of anemia (Hb < 120.0 g/L) was 49.5% in males and 58.1% in females (overall 54.8%, gender difference, P = 0.004). In anemic children 30.2% of males and 47.8% of females were iron deficient (serum ferritin < 30.0 microg/L). Folate deficiency (<6.80 nmol/L) was found in 54.6% and 52.5% of boys and girls respectively whereas zinc deficiency (<9.95 micromol/L) occurred in 51.5% and 58.3%. Anemic boys had a 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-2.6) and 1.6-fold (CI; 1.1-2.6) greater risk of being stunted and underweight, whereas the risk among anemic girls was 1.7 (CI; 1.1-2.7) and 1.0 (CI; 0.7-1.5) for being stunted and underweight. The relative risks of having at least two deficiencies in iron, zinc and folate among anemic children were 1.6 (CI; 0.6-4.2) among boys and 0.8 (CI; 0.5-1.5) among girls. Iron deficient subjects had a significantly increased risk of 1.8 (CI, 1.1-3.0) of being deficient in folate and 1.7 (CI, 1.2-2.6) of being deficient in zinc. Zinc deficient subjects had a risk of 1.3 (CI, 1.0-1.8) being iron deficient and 1.2 (CI, 0.9-1.7) of being folate deficient. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in Sri Lankan adolescents.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2006; 15(1):56-63. · 1.06 Impact Factor