[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE As use of standard depression questionnaires in clinical practice increases, clinicians will frequently encounter patients reporting thoughts of death or suicide. This study examined whether responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9) predict subsequent suicide attempt or suicide death. METHODS Electronic records from a large integrated health system were used to link PHQ-9 responses from outpatient visits to subsequent suicide attempts and suicide deaths. A total of 84,418 outpatients age ≥13 completed 207,265 questionnaires between 2007 and 2011. Electronic medical records, insurance claims, and death certificate data documented 709 subsequent suicide attempts and 46 suicide deaths in this sample. RESULTS Cumulative risk of suicide attempt over one year increased from .4% among outpatients reporting thoughts of death or self-harm "not at all" to 4% among those reporting thoughts of death or self-harm "nearly every day." After adjustment for age, sex, treatment history, and overall depression severity, responses to item 9 of the PHQ-9 remained a strong predictor of suicide attempt. Cumulative risk of suicide death over one year increased from .03% among those reporting thoughts of death or self-harm ideation "not at all" to .3% among those reporting such thoughts "nearly every day." Response to item 9 remained a moderate predictor of subsequent suicide death after the same factor adjustments. CONCLUSIONS Response to item 9 of the PHQ-9 for depression identified outpatients at increased risk of suicide attempt or death. This excess risk emerged over several days and continued to grow for several months, indicating that suicidal ideation was an enduring vulnerability rather than a short-term crisis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs), conditions that should not require inpatient treatment if timely and appropriate ambulatory care is provided, may be an important contributor to rising healthcare costs and public health burden. OBJECTIVE: To examine if probable major depression is independently associated with hospitalization for an ACSC in patients with diabetes. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort of 4,128 patients with diabetes ≥ 18 years old seen in primary care, who were enrolled between 2000 and 2002 and followed for 5 years (through 2007). MAIN MEASURES: Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Outcomes of interest included time to initial hospitalization for an ACSC and total number of ACSC-related hospitalizations. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to ascertain an association between probable major depression and time to ACSC-related hospitalization, as well as Poisson regression for models examining probable major depression and number of ACSC-related hospitalizations. KEY RESULTS: Patients' mean age at study enrollment was 63.4 years (Standard Deviation: 13.4 years). Over the 5-year follow-up period, 981 patients in the study were hospitalized a total of 1,721 times for an ACSC, comprising 45.1 % of all hospitalizations. After adjusting for baseline demographic, clinical and health-risk behavioral factors, probable major depression was associated with initial ACSC-related hospitalization (Hazard Ratio: 1.41, 95 % Confidence Interval [95 % CI]: 1.15, 1.72) and number of ACSC-related hospitalizations (Relative Risk: 1.37, 95 % CI: 1.12, 1.68). CONCLUSIONS: Probable major depression in patients with diabetes is independently associated with hospitalization for an ACSC. Additional research is warranted to ascertain if effective interventions for depression in patients with diabetes could reduce the risk of hospitalizations for ACSCs and their associated adverse outcomes.
Journal of General Internal Medicine 01/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medication nonadherence, inconsistent patient self-monitoring, and inadequate treatment adjustment exacerbate poor disease control. In a collaborative, team-based, care management program for complex patients (TEAMcare), we assessed patient and physician behaviors (medication adherence, self-monitoring, and treatment adjustment) in achieving better outcomes for diabetes, coronary heart disease, and depression.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted (2007-2009) in 14 primary care clinics among 214 patients with poorly controlled diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)] ≥8.5%) or coronary heart disease (blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >130 mg/dL) with coexisting depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10). In the TEAMcare program, a nurse care manager collaborated closely with primary care physicians, patients, and consultants to deliver a treat-to-target approach across multiple conditions. Measures included medication initiation, adjustment, adherence, and disease self-monitoring.
Pharmacotherapy initiation and adjustment rates were sixfold higher for antidepressants (relative rate [RR] = 6.20; P <.001), threefold higher for insulin (RR = 2.97; P <.001), and nearly twofold higher for antihypertensive medications (RR = 1.86, P <.001) among TEAMcare relative to usual care patients. Medication adherence did not differ between the 2 groups in any of the 5 therapeutic classes examined at 12 months. TEAMcare patients monitored blood pressure (RR = 3.20; P <.001) and glucose more frequently (RR = 1.28; P = .006).
Frequent and timely treatment adjustment by primary care physicians, along with increased patient self-monitoring, improved control of diabetes, depression, and heart disease, with no change in medication adherence rates. High baseline adherence rates may have exerted a ceiling effect on potential improvements in medication adherence.
The Annals of Family Medicine 01/2012; 10(1):6-14. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether intensive care unit (ICU) admission is independently associated with increased risk of major depression in patients with diabetes.
This prospective cohort study included 3596 patients with diabetes enrolled in the Pathways Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study, of whom 193 had at least one ICU admission over a 3-year period. We controlled for baseline depressive symptoms, demographics, and clinical characteristics. We examined associations between ICU admission and subsequent major depression using logistic regression.
There were 2624 eligible patients who survived to complete follow-up; 98 had at least one ICU admission. Follow-up assessments occurred at a mean of 16.4 months post-ICU for those who had an ICU admission. At baseline, patients who had an ICU admission tended to be depressed, older, had greater medical comorbidity, and had more diabetic complications. At follow-up, the point prevalence of probable major depression among patients who had an ICU admission was 14% versus 6% among patients without an ICU admission. After multivariate adjustment, ICU admission was independently associated with subsequent probable major depression (Odds Ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval (1.06-4.06)). Additionally, baseline probable major depression was significantly associated with post-ICU probable major depression.
ICU admission in patients with diabetes is independently associated with subsequent probable major depression. Additional research is needed to identify at-risk patients and potentially modifiable ICU exposures in order to inform future interventional studies with the goal of decreasing the burden of comorbid depression in older patients with diabetes who survive critical illnesses.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 02/2011; 27(1):22-30. · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unknown if comorbid depression in patients with diabetes mellitus increases the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission.
This study examined whether comorbid depression in patients with diabetes increased risk of ICU admission, coronary care unit (CCU) admission, and general medical-surgical unit hospitalization, as well as total days hospitalized, after controlling for demographics, clinical characteristics, and health risk behaviors.
This prospective cohort study included 3,596 patients with diabetes enrolled in the Pathways Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study. We assessed baseline depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We controlled for baseline demographics, smoking, BMI, exercise, hemoglobin A(1c), medical comorbidities, diabetes complications, type 1 diabetes, diabetes duration, and insulin treatment. We assessed time to any ICU, CCU, and/or general medical-surgical unit admission using Cox proportional-hazards regression. We used Poisson regression with robust standard errors to examine associations between depression and total days hospitalized.
Unadjusted analyses revealed that baseline probable major depression was associated with increased risk of ICU admission [hazard ratio (HR) 1.94, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)(1.34-2.81)], but was not associated with CCU or general medical-surgical unit admission. Fully adjusted analyses revealed probable major depression remained associated with increased risk of ICU admission [HR 2.23, 95% CI(1.45-3.45)]. Probable major depression was also associated with more total days hospitalized (Incremental Relative Risk 1.64, 95%CI(1.26-2.12)).
Patients with diabetes and comorbid depression have a greater risk of ICU admission. Improving depression treatment in patients with diabetes could potentially prevent hospitalizations for critical illnesses and lower healthcare costs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test whether depression is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers.
The Pathways Epidemiologic Study is a population-based prospective cohort study of 4839 patients with diabetes in 2000-2007. The present analysis included 3474 adults with type 2 diabetes and no prior diabetic foot ulcers or amputations. Mean follow-up was 4.1 years. Major and minor depression assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were the exposures of interest. The outcome of interest was incident diabetic foot ulcers. We computed the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident diabetic foot ulcers, comparing patients with major and minor depression with those without depression and adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, medical comorbidity, glycosylated hemoglobin, diabetes duration, insulin use, number of diabetes complications, body mass index, smoking status, and foot self-care. Sensitivity analyses also adjusted for peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease as defined by diagnosis codes.
Compared with patients without depression, patients with major depression by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 had a 2-fold increase in the risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted hazard ratio 2.00; 95% CI, 1.24-3.25). There was no statistically significant association between minor depression by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted hazard ratio 1.37; 95% CI, 0.77-2.44).
Major depression by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 is associated with a 2-fold higher risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Future studies of this association should include better measures of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, which are possible confounders or mediators.
The American journal of medicine 08/2010; 123(8):748-754.e3. · 5.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both depression and diabetes have been found to be risk factors for dementia. This study examined whether comorbid depression in patients with diabetes increases the risk for dementia compared to those with diabetes alone.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,837 primary care patients with diabetes (mean age 63.2 +/- 13.2 years) enrolled in an HMO in Washington State. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression at baseline, and ICD-9 diagnoses for dementia were used to identify cases of dementia. Cohort members with no previous ICD-9 diagnosis of dementia prior to baseline were followed for a 5-year period. The risk of dementia for patients with both major depression and diabetes at baseline relative to patients with diabetes alone was estimated using cause-specific Cox proportional hazard regression models that adjusted for age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, diabetes duration, treatment with insulin, diabetes complications, nondiabetes-related medical comorbidity, hypertension, BMI, physical inactivity, smoking, HbA(1c), and number of primary care visits per month.
Over the 5-year period, 36 of 455 (7.9%) patients with major depression and diabetes (incidence rate of 21.5 per 1,000 person-years) versus 163 of 3,382 (4.8%) patients with diabetes alone (incidence rate of 11.8 per 1,000 person-years) had one or more ICD-9 diagnoses of dementia. Patients with comorbid major depression had an increased risk of dementia (fully adjusted hazard ratio 2.69, 95% CI 1.77, 4.07).
Patients with major depression and diabetes had an increased risk of development of dementia compared to those with diabetes alone. These data add to recent findings showing that depression was associated with an increased risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in patients with diabetes.
Journal of General Internal Medicine 05/2010; 25(5):423-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) are two of the most prevalent medical illnesses in the US population and comorbid depression occurs in up to 20% of these patients. Guidelines for management of diabetes and CHD overlap for healthy lifestyle and disease-control recommendations. However, the majority of patients with these medical illnesses have been shown to have inadequate control of key risk factors such as blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, or blood sugar. Comorbid depression has been shown to adversely affect self-care of diabetes and CHD, and is associated with an increased risk of complications and mortality. Interventions that have improved quality and outcomes of depression care alone in patients with diabetes and CHD have not demonstrated benefits in self-care, improved disease control or morbidity and mortality. This paper describes the design and development of a new biopsychosocial intervention (TEAMcare) aimed at improving both medical disease control and depression in patients with poor control of diabetes and/or CHD who met the criteria for comorbid depression. A team approach is used with a nurse interventionist who receives weekly psychiatric and primary care physician caseload supervision in order to enhance treatment by the primary care physician. This intervention is being tested in an NIMH-funded randomized controlled trial in a large integrated health plan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little information is available about the association of depression with long-term control of glycemia, blood pressure, or lipid levels in patients with diabetes.
To determine whether minor and major depression at study enrollment compared with no depression are associated with higher average HbA(1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and LDL cholesterol over the long term in patients with an indication for or receiving drug treatment.
A total of 3,762 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in the Pathways Epidemiologic Study in 2001-2002 and followed for 5 years.
Depression was assessed at study enrollment using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). SBP and information on cardiovascular co-morbidity were abstracted from medical records, and LDL cholesterol and HbA(1c) measured during clinical care were obtained from computerized laboratory data during a median of 4.8 years' follow-up.
Among those with an indication for or receiving drug treatment, after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, average long-term HbA(1c), SBP, and LDL cholesterol did not differ in patients with comorbid diabetes and minor or major depression compared with those with diabetes alone.
The adverse effect of depression on outcomes in patients with diabetes may not be mediated in large part by poorer glycemic, blood pressure, or lipid control. Further study is needed of the biologic effects of depression on patients with diabetes and their relation to adverse outcomes.
Journal of General Internal Medicine 02/2010; 25(6):524-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to determine the association of major depression with mortality among diabetic patients with late stage CKD.
The Pathways Study is a longitudinal, prospective cohort study initiated to determine the impact of depression on outcomes among primary care diabetic patients. Subjects were followed from 2001 until 2007 for a mean duration of 4.4 years. Major depression, identified by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, was the primary exposure of interest. Stage 5 CKD was determined by dialysis codes and estimated glomerular filtration rate (<15 ml/min). An adjusted Cox proportional hazards multivariable model was used to determine the association of baseline major depression with mortality.
Of the 4128 enrolled subjects, 110 were identified with stage 5 CKD at baseline. Of those, 34 (22.1%) had major depression. Over a period of 5 years, major depression was associated with 2.95-fold greater risk of death (95% CI=1.24-7.02) compared to those with no or few depressive symptoms.
Major depression at baseline was associated with a 2.95-fold greater risk of mortality among stage 5 CKD diabetic patients. Given the high mortality risk, further testing of targeted depression interventions should be considered in this population.
General hospital psychiatry 01/2010; 32(2):119-24. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prospectively examine the association of depression with risks for advanced macrovascular and microvascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes.
A longitudinal cohort of 4,623 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes was enrolled in 2000-2002 and followed through 2005-2007. Advanced microvascular complications included blindness, end-stage renal disease, amputations, and renal failure deaths. Advanced macrovascular complications included myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular procedures, and deaths. Medical record review, ICD-9 diagnostic and procedural codes, and death certificate data were used to ascertain outcomes in the 5-year follow-up. Proportional hazard models analyzed the association between baseline depression and risks of adverse outcomes.
After adjustment for prior complications and demographic, clinical, and diabetes self-care variables, major depression was associated with significantly higher risks of adverse microvascular outcomes (hazard ratio 1.36 [95% CI 1.05-1.75]) and adverse macrovascular outcomes (1.24 [1.0-1.54]).
Among people with type 2 diabetes, major depression is associated with an increased risk of clinically significant microvascular and macrovascular complications over the ensuing 5 years, even after adjusting for diabetes severity and self-care activities. Clinical and public health significance of these findings rises as the incidence of type 2 diabetes soars. Further research is needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms for this association and to test interventions to reduce the risk of diabetes complications among patients with comorbid depression.
Diabetes care 11/2009; 33(2):264-9. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that depression is linked to increased mortality among patients with diabetes. This study examines the association of depression with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in diabetes.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of primary care patients with type 2 diabetes at Group Health Cooperative in Washington state. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression at baseline and reviewed medical records supplemented by the Washington state mortality registry to ascertain the causes of death.
Among a cohort of 4,184 patients, 581 patients died during the follow-up period. Deaths occurred among 428 (12.9%) patients with no depression, among 88 (17.8%) patients with major depression, and among 65 (18.2%) patients with minor depression. Causes of death were grouped as cardiovascular disease, 42.7%; cancer, 26.9%; and deaths that were not due to cardiovascular disease or cancer, 30.5%. Infections, dementia, renal failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most frequent causes in the latter group. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, baseline major depression (relative to no depression) was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-2.85), with cardiovascular mortality (HR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.37-2.94), and with noncardiovascular, noncancer mortality (HR = 3.35; 95% CI, 2.30-4.89). After additional adjustment for baseline clinical characteristics and health habits, major depression was significantly associated only with all-cause mortality (HR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19-1.95) and with death not caused by cancer or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.43-3.24). Minor depression showed similar but nonsignificant associations.
Patients with diabetes and coexisting depression face substantially elevated mortality risks beyond cardiovascular deaths.
The Annals of Family Medicine 01/2009; 7(5):414-21. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of increased cost-sharing in Washington State's Basic Health Plan (BHP) were assessed among adult BHP beneficiaries (N=14,515) and age-sex-residence matched controls enrolled in Group Health Cooperative. The BHP enrollees had higher disenrollment than controls before and after cost-sharing increases, but disenrollment did not change with increased cost-sharing. Basic Health Plan enrollees' out-of-pocket-costs increased 100% in two years, compared with 42% for controls. Out-of-pocket costs for BHP enrollees with diabetes increased 61% (from $675 to $1,086), while the 90th percentile increased 74%, from $1,358 to $2,365. Basic Health Plan enrollees had somewhat fewer visits than controls after cost-sharing increases, but total costs, timeliness of glucose monitoring, and glycemic control were unaffected. Cost-sharing changes increased out-of-pocket costs for BHP enrollees without affecting total costs, disenrollment, or diabetes quality of care indicators. The predominant effect of increased cost-sharing was to increase costs for low-income workers, particularly those with chronic disease.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 12/2008; 19(4):1229-40. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether the number and severity of diabetes complications are associated with increased risk of mortality and hospitalizations.
The Diabetes Complications Severity Index (DCSI) was developed from automated clinical baseline data of a primary care diabetes cohort and compared with a simple count of complications to predict mortality and hospitalizations. Cox proportional hazard and Poisson regression models were used to predict mortality and hospitalizations, respectively.
Of 4229 respondents, 356 deaths occurred during 4 years of follow-up. Those with 1 complication did not have an increased risk of mortality, whereas those with 2 complications (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27, 2.83), 3 complications (HR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.77, 4.01), 4 complications (HR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.18, 5.33), and >5 complications (HR = 7.18, 95% CI = 4.39, 11.74) had greater risk of death. Replacing the complications count with the DCSI showed a similar mortality risk. Each level of the continuous DCSI was associated with a 1.34-fold (95% CI = 1.28, 1.41) greater risk of death. Similar results were obtained for the association of the DCSI with risk of hospitalization. Comparison of receiver operating characteristic curves verified that the DCSI was a slightly better predictor of mortality than a count of complications (P < .0001).
Compared with the complications count, the DCSI performed slightly better and appears to be a useful tool for prediction of mortality and risk of hospitalization.
The American journal of managed care 01/2008; 14(1):15-23. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between mental health indicators (including meeting criteria for one or more DSM-IV [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition] anxiety or depressive disorders) and susceptibility to smoking or current smoking among youth with asthma and to evaluate the impact of smoking on asthma symptoms and self-management.
We conducted telephone interviews with a population-based sample of 11- to 17-year-old youth and their parents (n = 769). Interview content included questions on smoking behaviors, asthma symptoms and treatment, externalizing behavior, and a structured psychiatric interview to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders.
Five percent of youth were smokers and 10.6% indicated that they were "susceptible to smoking." Smoking was more common among youth with mental health disorders. Anxiety/depressive disorders were present in 14.5% of nonsmokers, 19.8% of susceptible nonsmokers, and 37.8% of smokers. After controlling for important covariates, youth with more than one anxiety and depressive disorder were at over twofold increased risk for being a smoker. Similarly, for each one-point increase in externalizing disorder symptoms, youth had a 10% increase in likelihood of being a smoker and a 4% increase in risk for "susceptibility to smoking." Youth who were smokers reported more asthma symptoms, reduced functioning due to asthma, less use of controller medicines, and more use of rescue medications.
Comorbid mental health disorders are associated with increased risk of smoking in youth with asthma. Smoking is associated with increased asthma symptom burden and decreased controller medication use. Interventions for youth with asthma should consider screening for and targeting these behavioral concerns.
Journal of Adolescent Health 06/2007; 40(5):425-32. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes is rapidly increasing in prevalence among working-age adults, but little is known about the clinical characteristics that predict work disability in this population. This study assessed clinical predictors of work disability among working-age individuals with diabetes.
In a cohort of diabetic individuals (n = 1,642) enrolled in a large health maintenance organization, excluding homemakers and retirees, we assessed the relation of diabetes severity, chronic disease comorbidity, depressive illness, and behavioral risk factors with work disability. Three indicators of work disability were assessed: being unable to work or otherwise being unemployed; missing > or =5 days from work in the prior month; and having severe difficulty with work tasks.
In the study population, 19% had significant work disability: 12% were unemployed, 7% of employed subjects had missed > or =5 days from work in the prior month, and 4% of employed subjects reported having had severe difficulty with work tasks. Depressive illness, chronic disease comorbidity, and diabetes symptoms were associated with all three types of work disability. Diabetes complications predicted unemployment and overall work disability status, whereas obesity and sedentary lifestyle did not predict work disability. Among subjects experiencing both major depression and three or more diabetes complications, >50% were unemployed; of those with significant work disability, half met the criteria for major or minor depression.
Depressive illness was strongly associated with unemployment and problems with work performance. Disease severity indicators, including complications and chronic disease comorbidity, were associated with unemployment and overall work disability status. Effective management of work disability among diabetic patients may need to address both physical and psychological impairments.
Diabetes Care 07/2005; 28(6):1326-32. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe youth smoking-related attitudes and evaluate the effects of parental factors on child adoption of positive attitudes about smoking.
This study used baseline and 20-month data from a family-based smoking-prevention study (82.9% completed both surveys).
Telephone recruitment from two health maintenance organizations.
Children aged 10 to 12 years and one parent of each child (n=418 families) were randomly assigned to a frequent assessment cohort (12.5% of participants). Intervention. Families received a mailed smoking-prevention packet (parent handbook, videotape about youth smoking, comic book, pen, and stickers), outreach telephone counselor calls to the parent, a newsletter, and medical record prompts for providers to deliver smoking-prevention messages to parents and children.
Demographics, tobacco status, attitudes about smoking (Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey), family discussions about tobacco, family cohesiveness (family support and togetherness), parent involvement, parent monitoring, and parenting confidence. Results. One-third of the children endorsed beliefs that they could smoke without becoming addicted, and 8% to 10% endorsed beliefs on the benefits of smoking. Children's positive attitudes about smoking were associated with lower family cohesiveness (p = .01). Parental use of tobacco was the only significant predictor of children's positive attitudes about tobacco at 20 months (p = .03).
Children as young as 10 years underestimate addictive properties of smoking, which may place them at risk for future smoking. Parental use of tobacco and family cohesiveness are important factors in the formulation of preteen attitudes about smoking.
American journal of health promotion: AJHP 07/2005; 19(6):410-7. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article seeks to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with disability among people with diabetes.
Among people with diabetes (N = 4357) in a large health maintenance organization, disease severity, psychologic and behavioral risk factors for disability were assessed. Disability was evaluated by the WHO Disability Assessment Scale (WHO-DAS-II), the SF-36 Social Functioning scale, and days of reduced household work.
Depression was associated with a tenfold increase in elevated WHO-DAS-II and low SF-36 Social Functioning scores, and a fourfold increase in 20+ days of reduced household work. Minor depression and the presence of three or more diabetic complications were associated with approximately a twofold increase in disability risk. Diabetic symptoms, chronic disease comorbidity, and reduced exercise were also associated with disability.
Among people with diabetes, depression, diabetic complications, and exercise are potentially modifiable factors associated with disability. This suggests that integrated, biopsychosocial approaches may be needed to understand and to ameliorate disability among people with diabetes.
Psychosomatic Medicine 01/2005; 67(2):233-40. · 4.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether racial or ethnic differences in prevalence of diabetic microalbuminuria were observed in a large primary care population in which comparable access to health care exists. A cross-sectional analysis of survey and automated laboratory data 2969 primary care diabetic patients of a large regional health maintenance organization was conducted. Study data were analyzed for racial/ethnic differences in microalbuminuria (30 to 300 mg albumin/g creatinine) and macroalbuminuria (>300 mg albumin/g creatinine) prevalence among diabetes registry-identified patients who completed a survey that assessed demographics, diabetes care, and depression. Computerized pharmacy, hospital, and laboratory data were linked to survey data for analysis. Racial/ethnic differences in the odds of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were assessed by unconditional logistic regression, stratified by the presence of hypertension. Among those tested, the unadjusted prevalence of micro- or macroalbuminuria was 30.9%, which was similar among the various racial/ethnic groups. Among those without hypertension, microalbuminuria was twofold greater (odds ratio [OR] 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14 to 3.53) and macroalbuminuria was threefold greater (OR 3.17; 95% CI 1.09 to 9.26) for Asians as compared with whites. Among those with hypertension, adjusted odds of microalbuminuria were greater for Hispanics (OR 3.82; 95% CI 1.16 to 12.57) than whites, whereas adjusted odds of macroalbuminuria were threefold greater for blacks (OR 3.32; 95% CI 1.26 to 8.76) than for whites. For most racial/ethnic minorities, hypertriglyceridemia was significantly associated with greater odds of micro- and macroalbuminuria. Among a large primary care population, racial/ethnic differences exist in the adjusted prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria depending on hypertension status. In this setting, racial/ethnic differences in early diabetic nephropathy were observed despite comparable access to diabetes care.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2005; 16(1):219-28. · 8.99 Impact Factor