[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
International travel contributes to the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria over the world. Most studies addressing travel-related changes in the faecal flora have focused on specific mobile resistance genes, or depended on culturing of individual bacterial isolates. Antibiotic resistance can, however, also spread via travellers colonized by bacteria carrying chromosomal antibiotic resistance mutations, but this has received little attention so far. Here we aimed at exploring the abundance of chromosomal quinolone resistance mutations in Escherichia communities residing in the gut of Swedish travellers, and to determine potential changes after visiting India. Sweden is a country with a comparably low degree of quinolone use and quinolone resistance, whereas the opposite is true for India.
Massively parallel amplicon sequencing targeting the quinolone-resistance determining region of gyrA and parC was applied to total DNA extracted from faecal samples. Paired samples were collected from 12 Swedish medical students before and after a 4-15 week visit to India. Twelve Indian residents were included for additional comparisons. Methods known resistance mutations were common in Swedes before travel as well as in Indians, with a trend for all mutations to be more common in the Indian sub group. There was a significant increase in the abundance of the most common amino acid substitution in GyrA (S83L, from 44 to 72 %, p = 0.036) in the samples collected after return to Sweden. No other substitution, including others commonly associated with quinolone resistance (D87N in GyrA, S80I in ParC) changed significantly. The number of distinct genotypes encoded in each traveller was significantly reduced after their visit to India for both GyrA (p = 0.0020) and ParC (p = 0.0051), indicating a reduced genetic diversity, similar to that found in the Indians.
International travel can alter the composition of the Escherichia communities in the faecal flora, favouring bacteria carrying certain resistance mutations, and, thereby, contributes to the global spread of antibiotic resistance. A high abundance of specific mutations in Swedish travellers before visiting India is consistent with the hypothesis that these mutation have no fitness cost even in the absence of an antibiotic selection pressure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard (ASSBY) is considered the largest of its kind in the world, and a major source of anthropogenic pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of shipbreaking activities on the bacterial community structure with a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. In the culture-dependent approach, 200 bacterial cultures were isolated and analyzed by molecular fingerprinting and 16S ribosomal RNA (r-RNA) gene sequencing, as well as being studied for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the culture-independent approach, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were related to eight major phyla, of which Betaproteobacteria (especially Acidovorax) was predominantly found in the polluted sediments of ASSBY and Gammaproteobacteria in the pristine sediment sample. The statistical approaches showed a significant difference in the bacterial community structure between the pristine and polluted sediments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the effect of shipbreaking activity on the bacterial community structure of the coastal sediment at ASSBY.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus Linn., Asteraceae) is a common, invasive weed found throughout the Indian subcontinent, Africa, America and Australia. The observed disease, Parthenium Witches’ Broom (PWB), characterised by phylloidy, stunting and prolific branching was observed during a field survey conducted between September 2014 to June 2015. PWB phytoplasma was detected in all symptomatic plant samples and in the previously reported insect vector, Orosius albicinctus belonging to family Cicadellidae (subfamily Deltocephalinae) and other Hemipteran insect samples by amplifying its 16S rRNA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a ‘Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia’- related strains associated with witches’ broom disease of P. hysterophorus and insect vector Orosius albicinctus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An obligate anaerobic, rod shape, Gram-stain-positive bacterium mainly single or in pairs, with size 0.5-1.0 x 2.0-10.0 µm; designated as BLPYG-8T was isolated from feces of healthy human volunteer aged 56 years. Cells were non-motile; form oval, terminal spores that swell the cells. The strain was affiliated with the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (Clostridium rRNA cluster I) as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain BLPYG-8T showed 97.3 to 97.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity respectively with Clostridium sulfidigenes DSM 18982T, C. subterminale JCM 1417T and C.thiosulfatireducens DSM 13105T respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analysis showed that the strain was distinct from their closest relative, C. sulfidigenes DSM 18982T, C. subterminale JCM 1417T, C.thiosulfatireducens DSM 13105T (54.2%, 53.9 %, 53.3%DNA-DNA relatedness respectively). Strain BLPYG-8Tgrows in PYG broth at temperatures between 20 and 40oC (optimum 37oC). The strain utilizes a range of amino acids as well as carbohydrates as a source of carbon and energy. Glucose fermentation resulted in formation of volatile fatty acids mainly acetic acid, n-butyric acid and organic acids such as succinic and lactic acid. The G+C content of strain BLPYG-8T is 44.1 mol% respectively. Major fatty acids (>10%) were14:0 FAME, 15:0 iso, 16:1 w7c and 16:0 FAME. Phylogenetic analysis and specific phenotypic characteristics and/or DNA G+C content differentiated the strain from its closest relatives. On the basis of this data, we propose strain BLPYG-8Tbe classified as representing a novel species, Clostridium punense sp. nov. The type strain is BLPYG-8T = (DSM 28650T=CCUG 64195T=MCC 2737T).
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 09/2015; DOI:10.1099/ijsem.0.000644 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During pregnancy there are significant changes in gut microbiota composition and activity. The impact of secretor status as determined by genotyping FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2) gene was taken as one of the confounding factors associated with faecal microbiota changes during pregnancy. In this prospective study, we followed women during pregnancy (total = 123 of which secretors = 108, non-secretors = 15) and characterised their gut microbiota by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Fluorescence In situ Hybridisation (FISH), Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. qPCR revealed that C . coccoides group counts decreased significantly in non-secretors in comparison to secretors (p = 0.02). Similar tendency was found by FISH analysis in Clostridium histolyticum and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus groups between the secretor and the non-secretor pregnant women. DGGE analysis showed significant decrease in richness of Clostridium sp. between secretor and non-secretor mothers during pregnancy. Pyrosequencing based analysis at phyla level showed that there is greater increase in Actinobacteria in secretors in comparison to non-secretors, whereas Proteobacteria showed more increase in non-secretors. Change in relative abundance of Clostridiaceae family from first to third trimester were significantly associated with secretor status of pregnant women (p = 0.05). Polyphasic approach for microbiota analysis points out that the host secretor status (FUT2 genotype) affects the gut microbiota during pregnancy. This may lead to altered infant gut microbiota colonization.
PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(7-7):e0134623. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0134623 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micrococcus lactis MCC 2278T and Zhihengliuella aestuarii JCM 16166T were published in International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology in 2011. They showed high levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.3%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that M. lactis MCC 2278T and Z. aestuarii JCM 16166T formed monophyletic clade and showed distant relationship with other members of the closely related genera like Micrococcus, Zhihengliuella, Arthrobacter and Citricoccus. Presence of high proportion of iso-C14:0 and iso-C16:0 with low iso-C15:0 distinguished M. lactis MCC 2278T and Z. aestuarii JCM 16166T from other members of the genera Micrococcus and Zhihengliuella. Unlike other members of the genera Zhihengliuella and Micrococcus; M. lactis MCC 2278T and Z. aestuarii JCM 16166T showed growth at low concentrations of NaCl. Thus, based on distinctive phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological features of these two organisms from other members of the genera Micrococcus and Zhihengliuella, it is clear that they did not fit with existing classification and deserve separate status. DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) value between the two strains was 63% and indicated that they were considered as separate species. In this study, we propose for the creation of a novel genus "Neomicrococcus" to accommodate them with Neomicrococcus aestuarii gen. nov., comb. nov. (JCM 16166T =KCTC 19557T) as type species. Neomicrococcus lactis comb. nov. (Type strain: MCC 2278T = DSM 23694T) is also proposed.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 07/2015; 53. DOI:10.1099/ijsem.0.000490 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid or Calcutta bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus Nees., Poaceae) is found in the tropical regions of Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and China. D. strictus is semelparous and has a flowering cycle of 20 to 65 years. It is one of the toughest bamboos in India and extensively used in making pulp, rayon, paper mills and construction of light-weight houses as well as furniture, making it a commercially significant plant species. Its young shoots are used as food, leaves as fodder and it is also used in traditional medicine (Nadgauda et al. 1993).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel bacterial strain 29Y89BT was isolated from the fecal sample of healthy human subject. The Gram stain negative, motile, non-spore forming, rod shaped bacterium strain 29Y89BT formed cream colored, 2 mm colonies on tryptic soy agar and showed optimum growth at 35 οC. Strain 29Y89BT showed highest relatedness with Pantoea gaviniae DSM 22758T (98.4%) followed by Pantoea calida DSM 22759T (97.2%) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) using atpD (ATP synthase β subunit), gyrB (DNA gyrase), infB (initiation translation factor 2) and rpoB (RNA polymerase β -subunit) genes also supported the result of 16S rRNA gene sequence based phylogeny. Strain 29Y89BT showed 62% and 40.7% similarity with P. calida DSM 22759T and P. gavinai DSM 22758T respectively, based on DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) study. Fatty acids profile showed that the bacterial strain contained C17:0 cyclo, C19:0 cyclo w8c C16:0, C14:0 and C12:0 as dominant fatty acids. In addition, Strain 29Y89BT showed physiological and phenotypic differences with its closest relative P. gaviniae DSM 22758T and P. calida DSM 22759T.Polar lipid profile mainly contained phospholipid. DNA G+C content is 59.1mol%. Thus, based on the findings of the current study, strain 29Y89BT showed clear delineations with its closest relatives P. gaviniae DSM 22758T and P. calida DSM 22759T, it was concluded that the strain 29Y89BT represented a novel species of genus Pantoea, for which the name Pantoea intestinalis sp. nov.is proposed. Strain 29Y89BT is the type strain of the species. (=DSM 28113T =MCC 2554T).
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1099/ijsem.0.000419 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Class1 integrons are one of the prevalent mechanisms of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in Gram negative organisms, but their prevalence and role in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of class 1 integrons in clinical isolates of MRSA.
Methodology: One hundred and forty three MRSA isolates obtained from two different cities in India (Pune and Mumbai) were characterized by biochemical tests and the antibiotic sensitivity was performed using the CLSI guidelines. The presence of class 1 integrons, sul1/qacEΔ1 region of class 1 integron and mecA gene among these isolates was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: All 143 isolates were mecA positive and coagulase positive. Overall, 71% of the MRSA isolates carried class 1 integrons. Fifty eight percent (45/77) of the isolates obtained from Mumbai and 85% (56/66) of the isolates from Pune, carried class 1 integrons. Thirty nine percent of these isolates carried sul1/qacEΔ1 region, thus confirming the association of class 1 integrons with antibiotic resistance genes. Along with β-lactam antibiotics the MRSA isolates were resistant to several other antibiotics, with resistance to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole being observed in 75%, 66% and 60% of the isolates, respectively.
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of class 1 integrons in MRSA isolates from India. The study provides insights into prevalence of a novel mechanism adapted by MRSA for the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes.
Indian journal of medical microbiology 04/2015; Volume 33(2):231-36. DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154905 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In low temperature nitrogen-deficient ecosystems, native microorganisms must possess adaptive mechanisms to cope with environmental stress as well as nitrogen (N) starvation-like conditions. However, moderate information is available about the cold adapted diazotrophs and diazotrophy.
The aim of this study was to examine the proteomic response(s) of Himalayan psychrotrophic diazotroph under low temperature nitrogen fixing conditions.
Proteomic analysis of Pseudomonas palleroniana N26 was carried out using two dimensional electrophoresis technique.
Altogether, fifty three protein spots were found to be differentially expressed revealing several mechanisms thought to be involved in low temperature adaptation and nitrogen fixation, including general stress adaptation, protein synthesis and modifications, and energy metabolism. Expression profiling of the spots revealed the up-regulation of low molecular weight acidic proteins; a majority of which were stress proteins. The largest group of down-regulated proteins were related to biosynthetic processes; thereby, providing the evidence for stress-associated metabolic adaptations.
The present study, which provides an overview of the cold diazotrophy of a Himalayan psychrotrophic bacterium and its adaptive responses, can facilitate further studies of low temperature nitrogen fixing mechanisms, psychrophilic diazotrophic markers, and transgenic microorganism(s)/crop(s) development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mosquito gut is a rich source of microorganisms. These microorganisms exhibit close association and contribute various physiological processes taking place in mosquito gut. The present study is aimed to characterize two bacterial isolates M19 and GB11 recovered from the gut of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito collected from Bhuj and Jamnagar districts of Gujarat, India.
Both the strains were characterized using polyphasic approach including, phenotypic characterization, whole cell protein profiling and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and groESL region.
Sequences of 16S rRNA gene of M19 and GB11 were 99% similar to Vagococcus carniphilus and Vagococcus fluvialis. But phenotypic profile, whole cell protein profile and sequence of groESL region of both isolates were found to be similar to V. fluvialis.
Based on phenotypic, genotypic and protein profiling, both the strains were identified as V. fluvialis. So far this species was known from domestic animals and human sources only. This is the first report of V. fluvialis inhabiting midgut of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito collected from Arabian sea coastal of India.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endo-symbionts of arthropods distributed among a wide range of hosts. It is now well known that they induce reproductive manipulations in their arthropod hosts by various phenotypic effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate Wolbachia infection among the insect order Odonata comprising 16 species from 5 families. Fifteen odonate species representing five families were found to harbour Wolbachia with the overall infection rate of 70%, out of which four-teen species are reported for the first time. According to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data and phylo-genetic analysis, all odonate Wolbachia species belong to supergroup F, except Trithemis pallindinervis, which belongs to supergroup B. MLST data reveal 20 new, highly similar STs (99.32 ± 0.34). We found a high rate of Wolbachia infection in Odonata of India, which indicates importance of this association. The charac-terization of these Wolbachia strains promises to lead to a deeper insight into this interaction, which is essential for further studies based on their phenotypic effects. The study suggests that all the characterized Wolbachia STs are totally new and arise as a result of point mutation.
Current science 03/2015; 108(5). · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The response of cellular fatty acids to various environmental stresses was studied using two endophytic species of Micrococcus. A total of 18 samples with three biological replicates from low, moderate and high stress conditions of salt (0.5, 5 and 10 % NaCl), pH (5, 7 and 10) and temperatures (15, 25 and 41 °C) were analysed. Branched chain fatty acids dominated in both the organisms, while saturated and unsatu-rated fatty acids were detected less frequently. The mole percentage of isoforms of branched chain fatty acids gradually increased with increasing salinity and showed more than a twofold increase at higher concentration of salt (10 %). Unlike Micrococcus yunnanensis DSM 21948 T , Micrococcus aloeverae MCC 2184 T showed more agreement with previous findings related to stress tolerance in other bacteria. Data indicate that iso fatty acids are responsible for the growth of Micrococcus at high salt concentration. In addition, instead of individual fatty acids, the ratio of the total content of iso/ anteiso forms modulates membrane fluidity and functions during environmental stress in Micrococcus. For a comparative study of salinity stress in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the strain of Halomonas was alsoincluded.
Annals of Microbiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13213-015-1061-x · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agriculture is an important livelihood activity in the Himalayan regions. Our previous studies revealed the presence of diverse diazotrophic assemblage in indigenous red kidney bean (RKB) rhizospheric soil from two different locations of Western Indian Himalaya, namely S1 (Chhiplakot, 30.70◦ N/80.30◦ E) and S2 (Munsyari, 30.60◦ N/80.20◦ E), selected on the basis of real-time PCR analysis. In this study, two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (SB1 and SB2, respectively) were constructed using the same rhizospheric soil samples for assessing the total bacterial diversity and their community structure. A total of 760 clones were obtained, with ∼54–59% of these sequences belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria. While sequences belonging to Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Acidobactria, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Nitrospira, Gemmatimonadetes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, OD1, OP11 and Actinobacteria were encountered in both the soils, sequences belonging to bacteria from the classes Chlorobi and BRC1 were only detected in the S1 soil. Both the libraries showed similar bacterial community compositions, with Pseudomonas (∼33–34%) as predominant genus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the clone sequences were clustered in different bacterial groups as per their resemblance with their respective phylogenetic neighbours. Major clusters were formed by Gammapreoteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. A good fraction of the clone sequences has no resemblance with existing groups, thereby suggesting the need of culture-dependent studies from Himalayan regions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first major metagenomic effort on Himalayan RKBs rhizobacteria revealing fundamental information that needs to be explored for functional studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two novel Gram-stain negative facultative anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains IG-V01T and IG-V01b were isolated from the gut of red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains IG-V01T and IG-V01b were found to have their highest sequence similarity (96.5 % and 96.4 %) with Serratia nematodiphila DZ0503SBS1T (Enterobacteriaceae family) respectively. Strains IG-V01T and IG-V01b share 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and exhibit very similar phenotypic characteristics. In addition, they show 89.7 % genomic relatedness (DNA–DNA hybridisation). Major fatty acids were identified to be C16:0 (38.3 %), C17:0 cyclo (19.5–20 %) and C14:0 (11.2–11.3 %). Cells contain phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol as predominant polar lipids. Genomic DNA G+C content (mol%) was determined to be 51.5–51.7. A polyphasic approach employing the study of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic, genomic and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two newly isolated strains cannot be placed in any of the existing genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, it is proposed that strains IG-V01T and IG-V01b belong to a novel genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae, and represent a new species Enterobacillus tribolii gen. nov., sp. nov., with the type strain =IG-V01T = KCTC 42159T = MCC 2532T.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 02/2015; 107(5):Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two novel Gram-stain negative facultative anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains IG-V01T and IG-V01b were isolated from the gut of red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains IG-V01T and IG-V01b were found to have their highest sequence similarity (96.5 % and 96.4 %) with Serratia nematodiphila DZ0503SBS1T (Enterobacteriaceae family) respectively. Strains IG-V01T and IG-V01b share 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and exhibit very similar phenotypic characteristics. In addition, they show 89.7 % genomic relatedness (DNA–DNA hybridisation). Major fatty acids were identified to be C16:0 (38.3 %), C17:0
cyclo (19.5–20 %) and C14:0 (11.2–11.3 %). Cells contain phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol as predominant polar lipids. Genomic DNA G+C content (mol%) was determined to be 51.5–51.7. A polyphasic approach employing the study of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic, genomic and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two newly isolated strains cannot be placed in any of the existing genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, it is proposed that strains IG-V01T and IG-V01b belong to a novel genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae, and represent a new species Enterobacillus tribolii gen. nov., sp. nov., with the type strain =IG-V01T = KCTC 42159T = MCC 2532T.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 02/2015; 107(5). DOI:10.1007/s10482-015-0412-8 · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Two pinkish red coloured Gram-stain negative, non-motile aerobic bacterial strains MCC P1T and MCC P2 capable of growing at low temperatures (15oC) were isolated from saline water Lake, western Himalayas of India. Strains were capable of growing at 0-2.0% NaCl and pH 6.5-9.0. 16S rRNA based phylogenetic analysis revealed its closest similarity 96.3 % to the only type strain of the genus Rufibacter, Rufibacter tibetensis. Two novel strains MCC P1 and MCC P2 shared 99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The major cellular fatty acids are c15:0 iso, c17:1 ω6c, summed Feature 3 (c16:1ω6c/c16:1 ω7c) and summed Feature 4 (c17:1 anteiso b/ c17:1 iso i). Predominant polar lipids of the strains were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol. Respiratory quinone was MK-7. The DNA G+C content of the strains was 52.6-52.8 mol%. Based on morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomical and molecular characteristics, strains MCC P1 and MCC P2 were different from the existing type strain of the genus Rufibacter. Hence, MCC P1T (= MCC 2268 = CCTCC AB 2013351 = Rufibacter immobilis sp. nov.) is proposed as a novel species of the genus Rufibacter, Rufibacter immobilis.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 02/2015; 65(Pt 5). DOI:10.1099/ijs.0.000144 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium designated as SGD-V-25T was isolated from Veraval sediment sample, India. Strain SGD-V-25T is capable of growing at 25-50°C (optimum 37°C), pH 6-12 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-5% NaCl (w/v). Taxonomic position of this strain was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the division Firmicutes, forming the cluster with B. badius MTCC 1548T, with which it shares highest similarity of 99.1% with 13 nucleotides differences. Other type strains of Bacillus species showed less than 96.0% similarity. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The polar lipid profile of strain SGD-V-25T showed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidyl glycerol (PG), phsophoglycolipid (PGL), and two aminophospholipid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0, C16:1 ω11c and C16:0. The G+C content of strain SGD-V-25T was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain SGD-V-25T was clearly distinguished from closely related member of the Bacillus genus, for which the name Bacillus encimensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is SGD-V-25T (=NCIM 5513T=DSM 28241T).
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 02/2015; 65(Pt 5). DOI:10.1099/ijs.0.000114 · 2.51 Impact Factor