ABSTRACT: No consensus exists for adjusting inhaled corticosteroid therapy in patients with asthma. Approaches include adjustment at outpatient visits guided by physician assessment of asthma control (symptoms, rescue therapy, pulmonary function), based on exhaled nitric oxide, or on a day-to-day basis guided by symptoms.
To determine if adjustment of inhaled corticosteroid therapy based on exhaled nitric oxide or day-to-day symptoms is superior to guideline-informed, physician assessment-based adjustment in preventing treatment failure in adults with mild to moderate asthma.
A randomized, parallel, 3-group, placebo-controlled, multiply-blinded trial of 342 adults with mild to moderate asthma controlled by low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy (n = 114 assigned to physician assessment-based adjustment [101 completed], n = 115 to biomarker-based [exhaled nitric oxide] adjustment [92 completed], and n = 113 to symptom-based adjustment [97 completed]), the Best Adjustment Strategy for Asthma in the Long Term (BASALT) trial was conducted by the Asthma Clinical Research Network at 10 academic medical centers in the United States for 9 months between June 2007 and July 2010.
For physician assessment-based adjustment and biomarker-based (exhaled nitric oxide) adjustment, the dose of inhaled corticosteroids was adjusted every 6 weeks; for symptom-based adjustment, inhaled corticosteroids were taken with each albuterol rescue use.
The primary outcome was time to treatment failure.
There were no significant differences in time to treatment failure. The 9-month Kaplan-Meier failure rates were 22% (97.5% CI, 14%-33%; 24 events) for physician assessment-based adjustment, 20% (97.5% CI, 13%-30%; 21 events) for biomarker-based adjustment, and 15% (97.5% CI, 9%-25%; 16 events) for symptom-based adjustment. The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs biomarker-based adjustment was 1.2 (97.5% CI, 0.6-2.3). The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs symptom-based adjustment was 1.6 (97.5% CI, 0.8-3.3).
Among adults with mild to moderate persistent asthma controlled with low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy, the use of either biomarker-based or symptom-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids was not superior to physician assessment-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids in time to treatment failure.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00495157.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2012; 308(10):987-97. · 30.03 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that people with asthma of different racial backgrounds may respond differently to various therapies.
To use data from well-characterized participants in prior Asthma Clinical Research Network (ACRN) trials to determine whether racial differences affected asthma treatment failures.
We analyzed baseline phenotypes and treatment failure rates (worsening asthma resulting in systemic corticosteroid use, hospitalization, emergency department visit, prolonged decrease in peak expiratory flow, increase in albuterol use, or safety concerns) in subjects participating in 10 ACRN trials (1993-2003). Self-declared race was reported in each trial and treatment failure rates were stratified by race.
A total of 1,200 unique subjects (whites = 795 [66%]; African Americans = 233 [19%]; others = 172 [14%]; mean age = 32) were included in the analyses. At baseline, African Americans had fewer asthma symptoms (P < 0.001) and less average daily rescue inhaler use (P = 0.007) than whites. There were no differences in baseline FEV(1) (% predicted); asthma quality of life; bronchial hyperreactivity; or exhaled nitric oxide concentrations. A total of 147 treatment failures were observed; a significantly higher proportion of African Americans (19.7%; n = 46) experienced a treatment failure compared with whites (12.7%; n = 101) (odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.5; P = 0.007). When stratified by treatment, African Americans receiving long-acting β-agonists were twice as likely as whites to experience a treatment failure (odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.6; P = 0.004), even when used with other controller therapies.
Despite having fewer asthma symptoms and less rescue β-agonist use, African-Americans with asthma have more treatment failures compared with whites, especially when taking long-acting β-agonists.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2011; 184(11):1247-53. · 11.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: PCR studies have demonstrated evidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae in the lower airways of patients with asthma.
To test the hypothesis that clarithromycin would improve asthma control in individuals with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma that was not well controlled despite treatment with low-dose inhaled corticosteroids.
Adults with an Asthma Control Questionnaire score ≥1.5 after a 4-week period of treatment with fluticasone propionate were entered into a PCR-stratified randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of 16 weeks of either clarithromycin or placebo, added to fluticasone, on asthma control in individuals with or without lower airway PCR evidence of M pneumoniae or C pneumoniae.
A total of 92 participants were randomized. Twelve (13%) subjects demonstrated PCR evidence of M pneumoniae or C pneumoniae in endobronchial biopsies; 80 were PCR-negative for both organisms. In PCR-positive participants, clarithromycin yielded a 0.4 ± 0.4 unit improvement in the Asthma Control Questionnaire score, with a 0.1 ± 0.3 unit improvement in those allocated to placebo. This between-group difference of 0.3 ± 0.5 (P = .6) was neither clinically nor statistically significant. In PCR-negative participants, a nonsignificant between-group difference of 0.2 ± 0.2 units (P = .3) was observed. Clarithromycin did not improve lung function or airway inflammation but did improve airway hyperresponsiveness, increasing the methacholine PC(20) by 1.2 ± 0.5 doubling doses (P = .02) in the study population.
Adding clarithromycin to fluticasone in adults with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma that was suboptimally controlled by low-dose inhaled corticosteroids alone did not further improve asthma control. Although there was an improvement in airway hyperresponsiveness with clarithromycin, this benefit was not accompanied by improvements in other secondary outcomes.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2010; 126(4):747-53. · 9.17 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) therapy improves symptoms in patients whose asthma is poorly controlled by an inhaled glucocorticoid alone. Alternative treatments for adults with uncontrolled asthma are needed.
In a three-way, double-blind, triple-dummy crossover trial involving 210 patients with asthma, we evaluated the addition of tiotropium bromide (a long-acting anticholinergic agent approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but not asthma) to an inhaled glucocorticoid, as compared with a doubling of the dose of the inhaled glucocorticoid (primary superiority comparison) or the addition of the LABA salmeterol (secondary noninferiority comparison).
The use of tiotropium resulted in a superior primary outcome, as compared with a doubling of the dose of an inhaled glucocorticoid, as assessed by measuring the morning peak expiratory flow (PEF), with a mean difference of 25.8 liters per minute (P<0.001) and superiority in most secondary outcomes, including evening PEF, with a difference of 35.3 liters per minute (P<0.001); the proportion of asthma-control days, with a difference of 0.079 (P=0.01); the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) before bronchodilation, with a difference of 0.10 liters (P=0.004); and daily symptom scores, with a difference of -0.11 points (P<0.001). The addition of tiotropium was also noninferior to the addition of salmeterol for all assessed outcomes and increased the prebronchodilator FEV1 more than did salmeterol, with a difference of 0.11 liters (P=0.003).
When added to an inhaled glucocorticoid, tiotropium improved symptoms and lung function in patients with inadequately controlled asthma. Its effects appeared to be equivalent to those with the addition of salmeterol. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00565266.).
New England Journal of Medicine 10/2010; 363(18):1715-26. · 53.30 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Some studies suggest that patients with asthma who are homozygous for arginine at the 16th amino acid position of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (B16 Arg/Arg) benefit less from treatment with longacting beta2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids than do those homozygous for glycine (B16 Gly/Gly). We investigated whether there is a genotype-specific response to treatment with a longacting beta2 agonist in combination with inhaled corticosteroid.
In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with moderate asthma were enrolled in pairs matched for forced expiratory volume in 1 s and ethnic origin, according to whether they had the B16 Arg/Arg (n=42) or B16 Gly/Gly (n=45) genotype. Individuals in a matched pair were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive inhaled longacting beta2 agonist (salmeterol 50 microg twice a day) or placebo given in a double-blind, crossover design for two 18-week periods. Open-label inhaled corticosteroid (hydrofluoroalkane beclometasone 240 microg twice a day) was given to all participants during the treatment periods. The primary endpoint was morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00200967.
After 18 weeks of treatment, mean morning PEF in Arg/Arg participants was 21.4 L/min (95% CI 11.8-31.1) higher when participants were assigned to receive salmeterol than when assigned to receive placebo (p<0.0001). In Gly/Gly participants, morning PEF was 21.5 L/min (11.0-32.1) higher when participants were assigned to receive salmeterol than when assigned to receive placebo (p<0.0001). The improvement in PEF did not differ between genotypes (difference [Arg/Arg-Gly/Gly] -0.1, -14.4 to 14.2; p=0.99). In Gly/Gly participants, methacholine PC20 (20% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s; a prespecified secondary outcome) was 2.4 times higher when participants were assigned to salmeterol than when assigned to placebo (p<0.0001). Responsiveness to methacholine did not differ between salmeterol and placebo in Arg/Arg participants (p=0.87). The 2.5 times higher genotype-specific difference in responsiveness to methacholine was significant (1.32 doubling dose difference between genotypes, 0.43-2.21, p=0.0038). Seven Arg/Arg participants (placebo, n=5; salmeterol, n=2) and six Gly/Gly participants (placebo, n=3; salmeterol, n=3) had an asthma exacerbation. Five serious adverse events were reported, one each during the pre-match and run-in phases on open-label inhaled corticosteroid, two during double-blind treatment with salmeterol/inhaled corticosteroid, and one during double-blind treatment with placebo/inhaled corticosteroid. None of the serious events was asthma-related or related to study drugs or procedures.
In asthma patients with B16 Arg/Arg and B16 Gly/Gly genotypes, combination treatment with salmeterol and inhaled corticosteroid improved airway function when compared with inhaled corticosteroid therapy alone. These findings suggest that patients should continue to be treated with longacting beta2 agonists plus moderate-dose inhaled corticosteroids irrespective of B16 genotype. Further investigation is needed to establish the importance of the genotype-specific difference in responsiveness to methacholine.
National Institutes of Health.
The Lancet 11/2009; 374(9703):1754-64. · 38.28 Impact Factor