[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variable-temperature electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies are used to probe the excited state electronic structure of Tp(Cum,Me)Zn(SQ-Ph-NN) (1), a donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) biradical complex and a ground state analogue of the charge-separated excited state formed in photoinduced electron transfer reactions. Strong electronic coupling mediated by the p-phenylene bridge stabilizes the triplet ground state of this molecule. Detailed spectroscopic and bonding calculations elucidate key bridge distortions that are involved in the SQ(π)(SOMO) → NN-Ph (π*)(LUMO) D → A charge transfer (CT) transition. We show that the primary excited state distortion that accompanies this CT is along a vibrational coordinate best described as a symmetric Ph(8a) + SQ(in-plane) linear combination and underscores the dominant role of the phenylene bridge fragment acting as an electron acceptor in the D-B-A charge transfer state. Our results show the importance of the phenylene bridge in promoting (1) electron transfer in D-Ph-A systems and (2) electron transport in biased electrode devices that employ a 1,4-phenylene linkage. We have also developed a relationship between the spin density on the acceptor, as measured via the isotropic NN nitrogen hyperfine interaction, and the strength of the D → A interaction given by the magnitude of the electronic coupling matrix element, H(ab).
Journal of the American Chemical Society 04/2012; 134(18):7812-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction between the bpz-based photoexcited (3)MLCT state of [Ru(II)(bpy)(2)(bpz)](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, bpz = 2,2'-bipyrazine) and a series of substituted hydroquinones (H(2)Q) has been studied by transient absorption (TA) and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) spectroscopy at X-band. When the reaction is carried out in a CH(3)CN/H(2)O mixed solvent system with unsubstituted hydroquinone, the neutral semiquinone radical (4a) and its conjugate base, the semiquinone radical anion (4b), are both observed. Variation of the acid strength in the solvent mixture allows the acid/base dependence of the PCET reaction to be investigated. In solutions with very low acid concentrations, TREPR spectra exclusively derived from radical anion 4b are observed, while at very high acid concentrations, the spectrum is assigned to the protonated structure 4a. At intermediate acid concentrations, either a superposition of spectra is observed (slow exchange between 4a and 4b) or substantial broadening in the TREPR spectrum is observed (fast exchange between 4a and 4b). Variation of substituents on the H(2)Q ring substantially alter this acid/base dependence and provide a means to investigate electronic effects on both the ET and PT components of the PCET process. The TA results suggest a change in mechanism from PCET to direct ET quenching in strongly basic solutions and with electron withdrawing groups on the H(2)Q ring system. Changing the ligand on the Ru complex also alters the acid/base dependence of the TREPR spectra through a series of complex equilibria between protonated and deprotonated hydroquinone radicals and anions. The relative intensities of the signals from radical 4a versus 4b can be rationalized quantitatively in terms of these equilibria and the relevant pK(a) values. An observed equilibrium deuterium isotope effect supports the conclusion that the post-PCET HQ(•)/Q(•-) equilibrium is the most important in determining the 4a/4b ratio at early delay times.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 03/2011; 115(15):3346-56. · 2.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computations and EPR spectroscopy are used to probe the spin distribution of donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) biradical complexes: Tp(Cum,Me)Zn(SQ-NN) (1), Tp(Cum,Me)Zn(SQ-1,4-Ph-NN) (2), Tp(Cum,Me)Zn(SQ-2,5-TP-NN) (3), and Tp(Cum,Me)Zn(SQ-2,5-Xyl-NN) (4) (SQ = orthosemiquinone and NN = nitronylnitroxide). These complexes are ground-state analogs of the charge-separated excited states formed in photoinduced electron transfer reactions. The intraligand magnetic exchange interaction (J) in these complexes is mediated by the bridges and has been found to stabilize the triplet ground states of 1 and 2. Detailed spectroscopic and bonding calculations have been used to elucidate the role of the bridge fragment (B) and its conformation relative to donor (SQ) and acceptor (NN) on spin density distributions. The computed results correlate well with experimental nitrogen hyperfine coupling constants.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 11/2010; 114(45):14712-6. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermal- and photoinduced valence tautomerism of a cobalt bis(dioxolene) complex is described. The thermal conversion is precipitous, complete within 10 K, and is accompanied by a 5 K hysteresis loop (107 K < T(1/2) < 112 K). Rapid thermal quenching (300 K --> 10 K in ca. 5 s) and photoinduced valence tautomerism result in trapping of the metastable Co(II)-state at low temperatures through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This lattice stabilization results in unmatched kinetic and thermal stability for a valence tautomer from 10-50 K, with residual hs-Co(II) persisting until about 90 K.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the electronic structure and the origin of ferromagnetic exchange coupling in two new metal complexes, NN-SQ-Co(III)(py)(2)Cat-NN (1) and NN-Ph-SQ-Co(III)(py)(2)Cat-Ph-NN (2) (NN = nitronylnitroxide radical, Ph = 1,4-phenylene, SQ = S = (1)/(2) semiquinone radical, Cat = S = 0 catecholate, and py = pyridine). Near-IR electronic absorption spectroscopy for 1 and 2 reveals a low-energy optical band that has been assigned as a Psi(u) --> Psi(g) transition involving bonding and antibonding linear combinations of delocalized dioxolene (SQ/Cat) valence frontier molecular orbitals. The ferromagnetic exchange interaction in 1 is so strong that only the high-spin quartet state (S(T) = (3)/(2)) is thermally populated at temperatures up to 300 K. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data for 2 reveals that an excited state spin doublet (S(T) = (1)/(2)) is populated at higher temperatures, indicating that the phenylene spacer modulates the magnitude of the magnetic exchange. The valence delocalization within the dioxolene dyad of 2 results in ferromagnetic alignment of two localized NN radicals separated by over 22 A. The ferromagnetic exchange in 1 and 2 results from a spin-dependent delocalization (double exchange type) process and the origin of this strong electron correlation has been understood in terms of a valence bond configuration interaction (VBCI) model. We show that ferromagnetic coupling promoted by organic mixed-valency provides keen insight into the ability of single molecules to communicate spin information over nanoscale distances. Furthermore, the strong interaction between the itinerant dioxolene electron and localized NN electron spins impacts our ability to understand the exchange interaction between delocalized electrons and pinned magnetic impurities in technologically important dilute magnetic semiconductor materials. The long correlation length (22 A) of the itinerant electron that mediates this coupling indicates that high-spin pi-delocalized organic molecules could find applications as nanoscale spin-polarized electron injectors and molecular wires.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 11/2009; 131(51):18304-13. · 10.68 Impact Factor