[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate parameters of early blood flow (EBF) including duration of EBF, perfusion index (PI), uptake indexes 1 and 2 (UI1 and UI2) derived from dynamic thyroid scintigraphy in patients with Graves’ disease (GD), and euthyroid (EI). Maximum instant uptake and maximum uptake of the thyroid gland were also assessed.
Methods: A total of 50 patients with GD and EI were included in this study. Each patient underwent two dynamic scans of 1-minute (20 images at 3 seconds) and 20-minute (20 images at 1 minute) with 99mTcO4. The time-activity curve of a 1-minute scan was employed to derive EBF parameters; likewise, the time-activity curve of a 20-minute scan was used to determine maximum instant uptake, and the gradient of the curve from the 10th to 20th minute was used to assess maximum uptake.
Results: Values of EBF duration, PI, UI1, UI2, and maximum instant uptake were significantly lower in patients with GD than in those with EI (p<0.05). The calculated gradient of the second half of the curves for all of the patients ranged from 0 to 0.88 and was significantly higher in patients with GD than in those with EI.
Conclusion: Lower values of PI, UI1, UI2 and durations of EBF, along with faster maximum instant uptake in patients with GD in comparison to EI are indicators of a heightened desire for hyper-functioning thyroid glands of patients with GD to absorb 99mTcO4. Additionally, because of the uprising gradient at the end of the 20-minute time-activity curve, a maximum thyroid uptake of 99mTcO4 was achieved at more than 20 minutes after the radiopharmaceutical injection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common form of peripheral entrapment neuropathy. The use of sonography for investigation and diagnosis of musculoskeletal conditions has been rapidly increasing over the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sonography can be an alternative method to nerve conduction study (NCS) in the diagnosis of CTS.
Individuals with electrodiagnostically proven CTS and healthy control subjects were enrolled prospectively. Median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) and flattening ratio (FR) at three different levels, proximal to tunnel inlet, at tunnel inlet and tunnel outlet, and flexor retinaculum thickness, were measured. Then, comparisons between ultrasonography and NCS were made.
We assessed 180 wrists, of which 120 were electrophysiologically confirmed as CTS diseased hands and 60 nondiseased hands in 90 patients (83 women and seven men). The mean median nerve CSA at the tunnel inlet was 13.31 ± 3.23 mm(2) in CTS diseased hands and 8.57 ± 0.82 mm(2) in nondiseased hands. Post hoc comparisons between the diseased and nondiseased hands demonstrated that the CSA at various levels of the median nerve were significantly greater in the CTS diseased hands than the nondiseased hands (P = 0.001). CSA at the tunnel inlet with a threshold of 9.15 mm(2) gave the best diagnostic accuracy with a sensitivity and specificity of 99.2% and 88.3%, respectively. The difference in cross-sectional area of the median nerve in mild, moderate and severe CTS was statistically significant.
Ultrasonographic measurement of the CSA of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet is useful in diagnosing and grading CTS.
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 02/2014; 17(6). DOI:10.1111/1756-185X.12310 · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scanning with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-MIBI) is recommended for evaluating thyroid nodule metabolism. In addition, it may help differentiate between benign and malignant nodules; however, the efficacy of this technique has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, it is not currently performed for routine clinical application. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of Tc-MIBI scintigraphy in the assessment of patients with cold thyroid nodules.
This prospective study was conducted on 104 patients with cold thyroid nodules greater than 1 cm in diameter as detected on Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. Uptake of MIBI in thyroid nodules was compared with that in the surrounding normal thyroid tissue for both early and delayed images, and a score of 0-3 was assigned to each nodule as follows: 0, cold; 1, decreased; 2, equal; 3, increased. The thyroid scan was performed 20 and 40 min after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of Tc-MIBI. The patients underwent fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Detailed statistical parameters were determined on a per-nodule basis for each qualitative and quantitative scan analysis, as defined by histology.
A total of 104 patients (93 women and 11 men; mean age 40.76±11.40 years, range 20-73) with a total number of 167 cold nodules were included in this study. When Tc-MIBI uptake was regarded as the criterion of malignancy in Tc-MIBI scintigraphy, the accuracy was between 69.46 and 92.21% on using seven different methods. In addition, FNAC findings indicated a sensitivity of 66.66%, a specificity of 100%, a negative predictive value of 95.72%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and an accuracy of 96.06%. Six malignant cold nodules were detected on a positive Tc-MIBI scan, which were determined as benign nodules on FNAC examinations.
The study demonstrated that Tc-MIBI scanning can be complementary to other diagnostic techniques in patients with cold thyroid nodules. In addition, because of its availability, rather low cost, simple protocol, and objective semiquantitative information, Tc-MIBI scanning seems to hold promise in routine imaging of cold thyroid nodules.
Nuclear Medicine Communications 10/2013; 35(1). DOI:10.1097/MNM.0000000000000013 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of resveratrol in lowering blood glucose in the presence of standard antidiabetic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded parallel clinical trial. A total of 66 subjects with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to intervention group which was supplemented with resveratrol at a dose 1 g/day for 45 days and control group which received placebo tablets. Body weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, haemoglobin A1c, insulin, homeostatic assessments for insulin resistance, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and markers of liver and kidney damage were measured at baseline and after 45 days of resveratrol or placebo supplementation. Resveratrol treatment significantly decreased systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, haemoglobin A1c, insulin, and insulin resistance, while HDL was significantly increased, when compared to their baseline levels. On the other hand, the placebo group had slightly increased fasting glucose and LDL when compared to their baseline levels. Liver and kidney function markers were unchanged in the intervention group. Overall, this study showed that resveratrol supplementation exerted strong antidiabetic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2013; 2013(7):851267. DOI:10.1155/2013/851267 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a health state that is associated with hypercholesterolemia, infertility, iron-deficiency anemia, and poor obstetric outcome. This article summarizes the results of a prospective clinical investigation of whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism and iron-deficiency anemia with a combination of levothyroxine plus iron salt would be superior to each treatment alone.
In a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial, 60 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and iron-deficiency anemia received iron salt+placebo (20 patients), levothyroxine+placebo (20 patients), or levothyroxine+iron salt (20 patients) for 3 months. Change from baseline (before) to end of study (after) in hemoglobin, ferritin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were compared among groups.
The increase from baseline in hemoglobin and ferritin in the levothyroxine+iron group was superior to the other groups, in which a decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone in the 2 groups that received levothyroxine was superior to the group treated with iron salt.
Subclinical hypothyroidism was investigated in iron-deficient patients with no acceptable response to iron salt alone. A combination of levothyroxine and iron salt is better than each one alone.
The American journal of medicine 05/2013; 126(5):420-4. DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2012.12.009 · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bone and fat interface is implicated in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The association between circulating omentin-1 levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women has never been assessed. A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women were randomly selected. Omentin-1, visfatin, adiponectin, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, degradation products of C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, and osteocalcin were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. BMD was determined for the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the proximal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression, serum omentin-1 levels were inversely correlated with BMD at the lumbar spine (β=-0.11, p=0.020). In multiple regression analyses, serum visfatin and adiponectin levels were not significantly correlated with BMD at different skeletal sites after controlling for age, body mass index, and bone-related markers. However, the highest quartile of adiponectin compared to the lowest quartile, after adjusting for potential confounders, revealed an inverse association with BMD in the lumbar spine (β=-0.19, p=0.010). In conclusion, circulating omentin-1 levels had an inverse correlation with BMD at the lumbar spine in Iranian postmenopausal women. To further understand the role of omentin-1 in bone and mineral metabolism, large-scale longitudinal studies focusing on BMD and osteoporotic fractures are warranted.
Bone 08/2012; 51(5):876-81. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2012.08.117 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it has been shown that osteocalcin functions as a hormone in the regulation of glucose metabolism and fat mass, no population-based study to date has addressed serum osteocalcin levels in relation to energy metabolism concurrent with bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a population-based study, cardiovascular risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteocalcin, CrossLaps, alkaline phosphatase, and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the proximal femur were measured in 382 Iranian postmenopausal women. In multiple logistic regression analysis, lower osteocalcin and CrossLaps levels were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) of having type 2 diabetes mellitus when adjustments were made for age, hs-CRP, cardiovascular risk factors, BMD, and markers of bone metabolism [OR 5.17, CI (2.66-10.04), p < 0.0001 and OR 2.51, CI (1.37-4.61), p = 0.003, respectively]. However, lower alkaline phosphatase levels were associated with a lower OR of having type 2 diabetes mellitus [OR 0.28, CI (0.15-0.52), p < 0.0001] in regression analysis. No significant difference was found between serum osteocalcin levels of those with and without metabolic syndrome. Among the metabolic syndrome components, low osteocalcin levels had significant associations with elevated blood glucose [OR 1.89, CI (1.16-3.07), p = 0.010] and elevated waist circumference [OR 2.53, CI (1.13-5.67), p = 0.024] in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, serum osteocalcin was independently associated with glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity as the components of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women. Since CrossLaps and alkaline phosphatase levels were independently associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the unique contribution of osteocalcin in glucose metabolism could not be concluded.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 07/2012; 30(6). DOI:10.1007/s00774-012-0367-z · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis results in the destruction of thyrocytes in chronic autoimmune hypothyroidism (CAIH). In this study, we examined the serum levels of soluble Fas (sFas) and soluble sFas ligand (sFasL) in euthyroid patients with chronic autoimmune hypothyroidism, who were taking levothyroxine (euthyroid, LT4-CAIH), to investigate the possible role of thyroid hormone therapy in down-regulation of apoptotic factors. Fifty euthyroid patients with CAIH on levothyroxine (median of duration 36 months, range 6-228 months) were compared with 75 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Serum levels of soluble Fas and soluble Fas Ligand, autoantibodies to thyroid peroxide and thyroglobulin were measured using ELISA. Serum levels of sFas were significantly higher in the euthyroid, LT4-CAIH group [median 9.12 ng/ml, interquartile range (7.86-10.72 ng/ml)] than in the controls [6.11 ng/ml (5.60-6.81 ng/ml)] (P < 0.0001). Compared with controls [80.33 pg/ml (68.22-103.70 pg/ml)], the euthyroid, LT4-CAIH group [125.71 pg/ml (106.11-149.48 pg/ml)] had significantly higher levels of sFasL (P < 0.0001). In a chronological study, there was no significant correlation between sFas, sFasL, and the duration of levothyroxine therapy. In conclusion, normalization of serum sFas and sFasL levels cannot be achieved during levothyroxine treatment in patients with CAIH. It appears that levothyroxine therapy has no important effect on down-regulation of apoptotic factors in CAIH. Thus, like thyroid autoantibodies, monitoring of serum levels of sFas/sFasL is not indicated during thyroid hormone therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an inhibitor of bone resorption. Circulating levels of OPG seem to be elevated in patients with cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. The relationship between OPG and the metabolic syndrome has never been studied in postmenopausal women. In a population-based study, 382 Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected. Cardiovascular risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and OPG were measured. The diabetes classification and the metabolic syndrome definition were based on the criteria of the American Diabetes Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III, respectively. The mean serum OPG level was higher in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus than those without diabetes (4.33 +/- 1.70 vs 3.84 +/- 1.76 pmol/L, P = .016). In multiple logistic regression analysis, type 2 diabetes mellitus showed a significant association with serum OPG levels when adjustments were made for age, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio = 2.21; confidence interval, 1.34-3.66; P = .002). No significant difference was found between the mean serum OPG levels of those with the metabolic syndrome and those without the metabolic syndrome. Mean OPG levels did not differ significantly between subjects with and without hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, or abdominal obesity according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. In conclusion, circulating OPG levels are significantly associated with diabetes, independent of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. However, OPG levels have no correlation with the metabolic syndrome or its components. Further studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic origin of elevated OPG in type 2 diabetes mellitus.