[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Berberine (BBR) shows very low plasma levels after oral administration due to its poor absorption by the gastrointestinal tract. We have previously demonstrated that BBR showed increased gastrointestinal absorption and enhanced antidiabetic effects in db/db mice after being entrapped into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). However, whether BBR-loaded SLNs (BBR-SLNs) also have beneficial effects on hepatosteatosis is not clear. We investigated the effects of BBR-SLNs on lipid metabolism in the liver using histological staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that oral administration of BBR-SLNs inhibited the increase of body weight and decreased liver weight in parallel with the reduction of serum alanine transaminase and liver triglyceride levels in db/db mice. The maximum drug concentration in the liver was 20-fold higher than that in the blood. BBR-SLNs reduced fat accumulation and lipid droplet sizes significantly in the liver, as indicated by hematoxylin and eosin and Oil Red O staining. The expression of lipogenic genes, including fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) were downregulated, while lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) was upregulated in BBR-SLN-treated livers. In summary, we have uncovered an unexpected effect of BBR-SLNs on hepatosteatosis treatment through the inhibition of lipogenesis and the induction of lipolysis in the liver of db/db mice.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 08/2015; 10:5049. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S84565 · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aim
Liver enzymes including serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are well recognized as surrogate makers reflecting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the associations of serum ALT, AST and GGT with hepatic lipid contents are not well established. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between liver enzymes and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) contents, and explore the feasibility in using liver enzymes to reflect accumulation of IHTG in obese subjects.
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 475 obese adults aged 40–65 years. Anthropometric parameters and blood biochemical indexes including liver enzymes, glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The liver triglyceride contents of subjects were determined by 1H-MRS.
Serum ALT, AST and GGT were positively correlated with IHTG contents (p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early postoperative hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients is an important risk factor affecting postoperative complications and mortality. This study aimed at investigating the effects of early postoperative hyperglycemia on postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay in non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies; data of 1,015 non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, who underwent surgical intervention between January 2010 and January 2012, were retrospectively evaluated. Records on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), liver function, and kidney function were collected before and one day after surgery. Correlation of early postoperative FPG levels with postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay was further assessed in non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. One day after surgery, FPG results were significantly increased compared to preoperative values. FPG levels greater than or equal to 9.13 mmol/L (or 164.34 mg/dL) were associated with significant increases in the incidence of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and hospital costs. An association is shown between FPG and postoperative hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal malignancies. Significant increases in postoperative complications among these patients suggest that measurement of early postoperative FPG levels is critical to identify patients with postoperative hyperglycemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high aqueous solubility, poor permeability, and absorption of berberine (BBR) result in its low plasma level after oral administration, which greatly limits its clinical application. BBR solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared to achieve improved bioavailability and prolonged effect. Developed SLNs showed homogeneous spherical shapes, small size (76.8 nm), zeta potential (7.87 mV), encapsulation efficiency (58%), and drug loading (4.2%). The power of X-ray diffraction combined with (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to analyze chemical functional groups and the microstructure of BBR-SLNs, and indicated that the drug was wrapped in a lipid carrier. Single dose (50 mg/kg) oral pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed significant improvement (P<0.05) in the peak plasma concentration, area under the curve, and variance of mean residence time of BBR-SLNs when compared to BBR alone (P<0.05), suggesting improved bioavailability. Furthermore, oral administration of both BBR and BBR-SLNs significantly suppressed body weight gain, fasting blood glucose levels, and homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance, and ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance in db/db diabetic mice. BBR-SLNs at high dose (100 mg/kg) showed more potent effects when compared to an equivalent dose of BBR. Morphologic analysis demonstrated that BBR-SLNs potentially promoted islet function and protected the islet from regeneration. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that by entrapping BBR into SLNs the absorption of BBR and its anti-diabetic action were effectively enhanced.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 12/2013; 8:4677-87. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S51262 · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aims:
Obesity is closely related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which has become an important public health problem because of its high prevalence and association with metabolic syndromes. Irisin was recently identified as a novel peptide to improve obesity and glucose homeostasis, and considered to be therapeutic for human metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum irisin concentration and liver triglyceride contents in obese Chinese adults.
Serum irisin levels were measured and liver fat contents determined by (1)H MRS in 296 obese adults. Anthropometric parameters and blood biochemical indexes including liver enzymes, glucose, and lipid profiles were detected. The liver triglyceride contents of subjects were measured by (1)H MRS. The protein levels of irisin were determined by quantitative ELISA.
We found that serum irisin levels were reduced in obese adults with NAFLD. By dividing the distribution of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) contents into quartiles, serum irisin levels were reduced gradually with the increase of IHTG contents (p<0.01). Higher serum irisin levels were associated with preferable TG levels. Serum ALT and AST concentrations were inversely correlated with serum irisin levels. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that serum irisin levels were independently associated with liver fat (p<0.01). By logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for higher IHTG contents was reduced by 12.4% per 1 SD increase in serum irisin concentrations after adjustment for multivariate metabolic factors [OR (95% CI); 0.876 (0.777-0.987)].
These results demonstrated that serum irisin concentrations were inversely associated with the triglyceride contents in the liver and liver enzymes in obese Chinese adults.
Journal of Hepatology 05/2013; 59(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.04.030 · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Obesity is related to hyperlipidemia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Health benefits of vegetarian diets have well-documented in the Western countries where both obesity and hyperlipidemia were prevalent. We studied the association between BMI and various lipid/lipoprotein measures, as well as between BMI and predicted coronary heart disease probability in lean, low risk populations in Southern China. The study included 170 Buddhist monks (vegetarians) and 126 omnivore men. Interaction between BMI and vegetarian status was tested in the multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had significantly lower mean BMI, blood pressures, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B and A-I, as well as lower predicted probability of coronary heart disease. Higher BMI was associated with unfavorable lipid/lipoprotein profile and predicted probability of coronary heart disease in both vegetarians and omnivores. However, the associations were significantly diminished in Buddhist vegetarians.
Vegetarian diets not only lower BMI, but also attenuate the BMI-related increases of atherogenic lipid/ lipoprotein and the probability of coronary heart disease.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/2013; 22(2):249-56. DOI:10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.07 · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (G-3D Au/GCE) was fabricated for detection of survivin gene which was correlated with osteosarcoma. The G-3D Au film was prepared with one-step electrochemical coreduction with graphite oxide and HAuCl at cathodic potentials. The active surface area of G-3D Au/GCE was 2.629cm, which was about 3.8 times compared to that of a Au-coated GCE under the same experimental conditions, and 8.8 times compared to a planar gold electrode with a similar geometric area. The resultant nanocomposites with high conductivity, electrocatalysis and biocompatibility were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A "sandwich-type" detection strategy was employed in this electrochemical DNA biosensor and the response of this DNA biosensor was measured by CV and amperometric current-time curve detection. Under optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the current signal and the logarithmic function of complementary DNA concentration in a range of 50-5000fM with a detection limit of 3.4fM. This new biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response, high sensitivity and selectivity and has been used in a polymerase chain reaction assay of real-life sample with a satisfactory result.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (TWHF) has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive effects and its clinical use was restricted to some extent due to some toxic effects on the digestive, urogenital, and blood circulatory systems, especially the male reproductive system. In the previous study, we had confirmed that TWHF-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have protective effects on male reproductive toxicity in rats. Anti-inflammatory effects and hepatotoxicity of TWHF-SLN remain to be unidentified. The present study was focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats treated with TWHF-SLN as well as the effects of SLN delivery system on decreasing the hepatotoxicity induced by tripterygium. Sixty-four healthy male rats were randomly divided into eight groups with eight rats each. From day 18 after FCA injection, TWHF-SLN group (120, 60, 30 mg/kg) and TWHF group (120, 60, 30 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage for 24 consecutive days. The control group was with saline and model control group was without any treatment. The volume of the right hind paws was evaluated at 0, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 42 days post-injection of FCA by a home-made connected device. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and albumin (ALB) levels were evaluated by an autoanalyzer. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) malondialdehyde (MDA) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) levels were determined using commercial kits. The PG level in sera was examined by double antibody sandwich method. Tissue histopathology was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The results show that TWHF-SLN can significantly reduce rat paw volume at 60 mg/kg (p<0.05) and PG levels in serum (p<0.05); the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT in serum and MDA, XOD, GSH-PX in liver were not significantly elevated. Histopathology observation found that free TWHF caused more serious damage to the liver than TWHF-SLN. These results revealed that SLN delivery system can enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of TWHF, and meanwhile has a protective effect against TWHF-induced hepatotoxicity.
Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 08/2012; 19(11):998-1006. DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.06.006 · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF) is used clinically to treat some autoimmune and inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and skin diseases. However TWHF has a high potential for toxicity, so its clinical use is limited. Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) delivery systems are reported to have remarkable advantages over conventional formulations of bioactive plant extracts, such as enhancing solubility and bioavailability, offering protection from toxicity, and enhancing pharmacological activity. We reported previously that a tripterygium glycoside (TG) solid lipid nanoparticle (TG-SLN) delivery system had a protective effect against TG-induced male reproductive toxicity. To better understand this issue, we used triptolide (TP) as a model drug in a comparative study of the toxicokinetic and tissue distribution of TP-SLN and free TP in rats, allowing us to observing the in vivo behavior of this nanoformulation and to assess mechanisms of SLN-related toxicity. A fast and sensitive HPLC-APCI-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of triptolide in rat plasma. Fourteen rats were divided randomly into two groups of 7 rats each for toxicokinetic analysis, with one group receiving free TP (450μg/kg) and the other receiving the TP-SLN formulation (450μg/kg). Blood was obtained before dosing and 0.083, 0.17, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4h after drug administration. Thirty-six rats were divided randomly into six equal groups for a tissue-distribution study. Half of the rats received intragastric administration of TP (450μg/kg) and the other half received TP-SLN (450μg/kg). At 15, 45, and 90min after dosing, samples of blood, liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and testicular tissue were taken. TP concentration in the samples was determined by LC-APCI-MS-MS. The toxicokinetic results for the nanoformulation showed a significant increase the area under the curve (AUC) (P<0.05), significantly longer T(max) and mean retention times (MRTs) (0-t) (P<0.05), significantly decreased C(max) (P<0.05). The nanoformulation promoted absorption with a slow release character, indicating that toxicokinetic changes may be the most important mechanism for the enhanced efficacy of nanoformulations. Tissue-distribution results suggest a tendency for TP concentrations in the lung and spleen to increase, while TP concentrations in plasma, liver, kidney, and testes tended to decrease in the TP-SLN group. At multiple time points, testicular tissue TP concentrations were lower in the TP-SLN group than in free TP group. This provides an important clue for the decreased reproductive toxicity observed with TP-SLN.
European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 06/2012; 47(4):713-717. DOI:10.1016/j.ejps.2012.05.012 · 3.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the therapeutic effects of Ping-tang Recipe (, PTR) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
Forty male SD rats were included in the study. Ten rats were fed on normal diet as normal control, and thirty rats were fed on HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity, followed with low dose (0.42 g/kg) or high dose (0.84 g/kg) of PTR or vehicle for 8 weeks with 10 animals for each group. Glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity were evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test. Hepatic steatosis was measured by immunohistochemistry. Liver lipid metabolic genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, while AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression was examined by Western blot.
Rats fed on HFD developed abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and NAFLD. PTR treatment reduced visceral fat (peri-epididymal and peri-renal) accumulation, improved glucose metabolism, and attenuated hepatic steatosis. The expressions of the key lipolytic regulating genes, including peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PRAR-γ) and α (PRAR-α), were up-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the expressions of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) were down-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In addition, PTR activated AMPK and promoted acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in the liver.
PTR improves insulin resistance and reverse hepatic steatosis in the rat model of HFD-induced obesity through promotion of lipolysis and reduction of lipogenesis, which involves the AMPK signaling pathway, thus representing a new therapeutic intervention for obesity related insulin resistance and NAFLD.
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 04/2012; 18(4):262-8. DOI:10.1007/s11655-012-1023-0 · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet has protective effects on metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
One hundred sixty-nine healthy Chinese lacto-vegetarians and 126 healthy omnivore men aged 21-76 years were enrolled. Anthropometric indexes, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, pancreatic β cell function, and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries were assessed and compared. Cardiovascular risk points and probability of developing CVD in 5-10 years in participants aged 24-55 years were calculated.
Compared with omnivores, lacto-vegetarians had remarkably lower body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, γ-glutamyl transferase, serum creatinine, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, as well as lower total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Vegetarians also had higher homeostasis model assessment β cell function and insulin secretion index and thinner carotid IMT than the omnivores did. These results corresponded with lower cardiovascular risk points and probability of developing CVD in 5-10 years in vegetarians 24-55 years old.
In healthy Chinese men, the lacto-vegetarian diet seems to exert protective effects on blood pressure, lipid profiles, and metabolic parameters and results in significantly lower carotid IMT. Lower CVD risks found in vegetarians also reflect the beneficial effect of the Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet.
Nutrition in Clinical Practice 03/2012; 27(3):392-8. DOI:10.1177/0884533611436173 · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT:
Many studies have shown that vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of vegetarian diet on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), as well as the association between IMT and duration of vegetarian diet, are still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the influence of duration of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk factors, and more importantly on IMT among Chinese vegetarians.
One hundred and seventy-one Chinese male vegetarians were screened for metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk and carotid IMT. They were compared with 129 age-matched omnivores recruited from a community-based health project. The effects of confounding factors were adjusted by stepwise logistic regression analysis.
Compared to the omnivores, the vegetarians had lower BMI, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Also, the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, ApoA1, ApoB, uric acid, albumin and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly reduced in vegetarians. Omnivores had significantly higher fasting blood glucose than that of vegetarians. However, there were no differences in fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and HOMA-IR between the two groups. IMT was thinner in the vegetarian group than in the omnivore group (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 cm, P < 0.05). The vegetarians were divided according to duration of vegetarian diet (< 6 years, 6 to ≤ 11 years, > 11 years), those in tertile 1 (< 6 years) and tertile 2 (6 to ≤ 11 years) had shown thinner IMT as compared to the omnivores, and tertile 3 had shown no reduction.
A decrease in multiple cardiovascular risk factors such as BMI, blood pressure and lipid profile was associated with vegetarian diet. Moreover, taking a low-calorie, low-protein, or vegetarian diet might have great beneficial effects on IMT through improved lipid profile, and the beneficial effects appeared to be correlated with the duration of vegetarian diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The link between obesity and insulin resistance largely accounts for the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, in which adipokine expression plays a key role. Puerarin, a major active isoflavone extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Puerariae, has been studied for its comprehensive biological actions. However, its effect on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and adipokine expression in rat has not been well investigated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a normal control diet (NCD) or HFD for 6 weeks, followed by administration of puerarin (100 and 200 mg/kg) for up to 8 weeks. Compared to NCD, HFD feeding for 6 weeks led to increased body weight gain and impaired glucose/insulin tolerance manifested by oral glucose/intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests in rats. These exacerbations prolonged through HFD feeding, but were effectively reversed by puerarin administration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that, serum levels of leptin and resistin, but not that of adiponectin, were markedly augmented by HFD and retarded by puerarin treatment. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results showed that, in agreement with the circulating levels, mRNA expression of leptin and resistin in epididymal white adipose tissue was modified by HFD and improved by puerarin in the same pattern. Collectively, we revealed that puerarin could improve body weight gain, glucose/insulin intolerance and adipokine expression in HFD-induced insulin resistant rats, indicating its potential value for treatment of metabolic syndrome.
European journal of pharmacology 12/2010; 649(1-3):398-402. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.09.054 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by the defects in cortisol and aldosterone secretion, and accompanied with adrenal hyperandrogenism. It is likely that the impaired adrenocortical function and intermittent treatment-related hypercortisolism may predispose patients to the development of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Our aim was to assess the impact of hyperandrogenism on metabolic profiles in CAH women without glucocorticosteroid treatment. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles in 30 untreated Chinese female adults with simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SV-CAH). Mutation analysis was performed by sequencing the entire 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). As compared with the controls, CAH patients had higher BMI (BMI, 21.5±2.1 vs. 20.0±1.8 kg/m2, P<0.05), higher 2 h post-load plasma glucose levels (6. 35±1.74 vs. 5. 35±1.17 mmol/l, P<0.05), higher serum triglycerides (TG) (1.12±0.64 vs. 0.63±0.15 mmol/l, P<0.01), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (1.30±0.39 vs. 1.67±0.29 mmol/l, P<0.01). Moreover, CAH patients had higher fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (1.81±0.99 vs. 1.24±0.50, P<0.05), while ΔIns30/ΔGlu30 showed no statistically significant difference in two groups. In addition, a marked reduction of serum adiponectin levels were observed in CAH patients (7.0±3.3 vs. 13.2±4.8 μg/ml, P<0.001), however, serum CRP levels were not different between patients and the controls. Further regression analysis showed that higher serum testosterone concentrations were associated with metabolic disorder indexes and reduction of serum adiponectin. Our study demonstrates that untreated CAH patients are prone to have metabolic disorders in association with elevated serum testosterone levels and reduced insulin insensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium channel blockers alter glucose homeostasis, but sufficient data regarding this effect in healthy animals have not been provided. We test the effect of nicardipine on beta cell function in healthy rats.
Islets from Sprague-Dawley rats were coincubated with nicardipine, tolbutamide, or their combination for 1 hour. Insulin secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay. The rats were given nicardipine, tolbutamide, or their combination by intravenous injection. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed after the first drug administration and 4 weeks later. Pancreata were excised for assessment of insulin content and immunohistochemical staining in the end.
Nicardipine markedly inhibited not only the insulin secretion by islets per se but also that enhanced by tolbutamide in vitro. Blood glucose was reduced by tolbutamide in vivo but elevated by nicardipine abruptly in parallel with retarded insulin secretion. Long-term administration of nicardipine altered neither fasting blood glucose level nor fasting serum insulin level, whereas pancreatic insulin content was unmodified despite that nicardipine caused shrunken islets with weak immunoreactivity of beta cells by immunohistochemistry.
In healthy rats, immediate administration of nicardipine inhibits insulin secretion of beta cells both in vitro and in vivo but does not exert a deleterious effect in vivo after long-term treatment.