Robert Jack

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

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Publications (6)15.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the perioperative outcomes of patients undergoing an anterior "extended Chamberlain" minithoracotomy as an alternative approach to a hemi-clamshell sternotomy or extended lateral thoracotomy for safe and reliable access to the pulmonary hilum and subsequent anatomic pulmonary resection. This study is a retrospective review of 162 patients undergoing anatomic lung resection through a mini anterior thoracotomy from 2002 to 2010. An 8-cm anterior thoracotomy was performed with the patient in a supine position, entering the chest through the second intercostal space. The pectoralis muscle fibers were split with preservation of the mammary artery medially and the thoracoacromial neurovascular bundle laterally. Primary outcome variables included hospital course, complications, and mortality rate. The mean age was 63.9 (range, 20 to 85 years); female to male ratio was 71:91. Neoadjuvant therapy was used in 49 (30.2%) patients. Proposed resections were successful in 161 of 162 (99%) patients. Conversion to hemi-clamshell was required in 1 patient for vascular control. Complications occurred in 48 (29.6%) patients. Three (1.9%) perioperative deaths (2 pneumonectomies [6.3%], 1 lobectomy [1.0%]) occurred. Median length of stay was 8 days. The "extended Chamberlain" mini anterior thoracotomy provides direct and expeditious, less-invasive access to the pulmonary hilum. This approach preserves muscle function and avoids partial sternotomy or extended lateral thoracotomy, and their associated incisional-related morbidity.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2012; 93(5):1641-5; discussion 1646. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been found to increase survival in many forms of cancer, including, endometrial, bile ductal, colonic, esophageal, and urothelial cancers, as well as melanoma and follicular lymphoma. The relevance of TILs in the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, still remains controversial. We compared the outcomes of stage 1A NSCLC with and without tumor infiltrating lymphocytes to evaluate the effects of TILs on recurrence and survival patterns. From 2000 to 2009, 273 anatomic segmentectomies and lobectomies were performed on stage 1A NSCLC. Patients were stratified into TIL- and TIL+ cohorts based on pathologic evaluation. Further investigation was conducted on the effects of TILs in patients with and without angiolymphatic invasion. Variables analyzed include overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and type of recurrence. Overall 5-y survival was not affected by TIL status (65% versus 60%, P = 0.469). Five-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was significantly increased in the TIL+ group versus the TIL- group (87% versus 73%, P = 0.011), most significantly in women (P = 0.016). The presence of angiolymphatic invasion (ALI) was associated with decreased 5-y RFS versus patients without ALI (61% versus 85%, P < 0.001). Interestingly, in the ALI negative group, TIL+ patients experienced a significantly increased 5-y recurrence-free survival versus TIL- patients (93% versus 80%, P = 0.036). High levels of intratumoral TILs are associated with improved recurrence-free survival in stage 1A NSCLC patients as well as a reduced likelihood of systemic recurrence. When angiolymphatic invasion is not present, the beneficial effects of TILs become even more profound.
    Journal of Surgical Research 04/2011; 171(1):1-5. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kyphoscoliosis is seen in approximately 1.4-15% of the octogenarian population of the US. We hypothesized that patients with kyphoscoliosis are affected with a reduced intra-abdominal volume and progressive laxity of the diaphragmatic hiatal sling musculature leading to an increased risk of hiatal hernia formation and progression over time. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical history and roentgenographic data of 320 paraesophageal hernia patients from 2003 to 2007. The prevalence of kyphoscoliosis among this patient cohort and the outcomes of surgical management were compared to paraesophageal hernia patients without kyphoscoliosis. Ninety-three of the 320 patients (29.1%) were found to have significant K/S (mean age 74; 83% female). Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia with fundoplication was performed in 91% of these patients. There was one death (1.1%; aspiration pneumonia) and 17.2% major postoperative morbidity. Mean length of hospital stay was 8 days (median = 4; range 2-71). Prolonged stays were related mainly to marginal pulmonary status. Kyphoscoliosis was associated with increased peri-operative pulmonary morbidity (16.1%) compared to patients without kyphoscoliosis (7.0%, p = 0.02). Kyphoscoliosis may contribute to the development and progression of paraesophageal hernias. Surgeons approaching paraesophageal hernia repair should be aware of the increased pulmonary morbidity and the postoperative care required in managing these patients.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 01/2011; 15(1):23-8. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Research - J SURG RES. 01/2011; 165(2):189-190.
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    ABSTRACT: Anatomic segmentectomy is increasingly being considered as a means of achieving an R0 resection for peripheral, small, stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. In the current study, we compare the results of video-assisted thoracic surgery (n = 104) versus open (n = 121) segmentectomy in the treatment of stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. A total of 225 consecutive anatomic segmentectomies were performed for stage IA (n = 138) or IB (n = 87) non-small-cell lung cancer from 2002 to 2007. Primary outcome variables included hospital course, complications, mortality, recurrence, and survival. Statistical comparisons were performed utilizing the t test and Fisher exact test. The probability of overall and recurrence-free survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, with significance being estimated by the log-rank test. Mean age (69.9 years) and gender distribution were similar between the video-assisted thoracic surgery and open groups. Average tumor size was 2.3 cm (2.1 cm video-assisted thoracic surgery; 2.4 cm open). Mean follow-up was 16.2 (video-assisted thoracic surgery) and 28.2 (open) months. There were 2 perioperative deaths (2/225; 0.9%), both in the open group. Video-assisted thoracic surgery segmentectomy was associated with decreased length of stay (5 vs 7 days, P < .001) and pulmonary complications (15.4% vs 29.8%, P = .012) compared with open segmentectomy. Overall mortality, complications, local and systemic recurrence, and survival were similar between video-assisted thoracic surgery and open segmentectomy groups. Video-assisted thoracic surgery segmentectomy can be performed with acceptable morbidity, mortality, recurrence, and survival. The video-assisted thoracic surgery approach affords a shorter length of stay and fewer postoperative pulmonary complications compared with open techniques. The potential benefits and limitations of segmentectomy will need to be further evaluated by prospective, randomized trials.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 12/2009; 138(6):1318-25.e1. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central lung cancers with pulmonary hilar involvement can pose a technical challenge when a lateral thoracotomy is used. Proximal vascular control and pulmonary vascular dissection from this approach can be challenging and potentially dangerous. We describe the use of a Chamberlain anterior minithoracotomy as an alternative approach for safe and reliable access to the pulmonary hilum. One hundred two consecutive patients undergoing the Chamberlain approach were identified through retrospective chart review from 2002 to 2009. The supine position was used, thus reducing the likelihood of down-lung syndrome. An 8-cm anterior thoracotomy was performed over the second interspace along the line of the pectoral fibers, with preservation of the mammary artery medially and the thoracoacromial neurovascular bundle laterally. Primary outcome variables included hospital course, complications, and mortality rate. The mean age was 64.8 years (range, 20-89 years). Sex ratio (female:male) was 44:58. Neoadjuvant therapy was used in 43 patients (42.2%). Proposed resections were successful in 101 (99%) of 102 patients. Conversion to hemiclamshell was required in 1 patient for vascular control. Three perioperative deaths (2.9%; two pneumonectomies, one lobectomy) occurred. The Chamberlain mini anterior thoracotomy provides direct access to the pulmonary hilum, facilitating dissection and vascular control for large and central tumors. Reduced perioperative pain and down-lung syndrome compared to lateral approaches can be achieved. Muscle function is preserved, and intrapericardial/hilar access is expeditious. This approach enhances hilar access and avoids the vascular control and hilar exposure challenges inherent with lateral thoracotomy.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 11/2009; 17(1):123-8. · 4.12 Impact Factor