[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) circulate with increased numbers in the peripheral blood of patients with highly-vascularised hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and contribute to angiogenesis and neovascularisation. We hypothesised that angiogenic EPCs, that is, colony forming unit-endothelial cells (CFU-ECs), and outgrowth EPCs, that is, endothelial colony-forming cells, may exert paracrine effects on the behaviours and metastatic capacities of human hepatoma cells.
Various molecular and functional approaches ranging from in vitro cell culture studies on molecular signalling to in vivo investigations on cell invasion and orthotropic transplantation models in mice and clinical specimens from patients with HCC were used.
Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was identified as a critical mediator released from CFU-ECs to contribute to the chemotaxis of Huh7 and Hep3B cells by inducing their microRNA-21 (miR-21) biogenesis through the C-C chemokine receptor-2/c-Jun N-terminal kinase/activator protein-1 signalling cascade. CFU-EC-induction of miR-21 in these cells activated their Rac1 and matrix metallopeptidase-9 by silencing Rho GTPase-activating protein-24 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, respectively, leading to increased cell mobility. MCP-1-induction of miR-21 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transformation of Huh7 cells in vitro and their intrahepatic metastatic capability in vivo. Moreover, increased numbers of MCP-1(+) EPCs and their positive correlations with miR-21 induction and metastatic stages in human HCC were found.
Our results provide new insights into the complexity of EPC-HCC interactions and indicate that anticancer therapies targeting either the MCP-1 released from angiogenic EPCs or the miR-21 biogenesis in HCC cells may prevent the malignant progression of primary tumours.
Gut 06/2014; 64(7). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306302 · 14.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Catenin phosphorylation plays important roles in modulating its functions, but the effects of different phosphorylated forms of β-catenin in response to heterocellular interaction are unclear. Here we investigated whether distinct modes of phosphorylation on β-catenin could be triggered through heterocellular interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the consequent modulation of EC functions. ECs were cocultured with SMCs to initiate direct contact and paracrine interaction. EC-SMC coculture induced EC β-catenin phosphorylations simultaneously at tyrosine 142 (Tyr142) and serine 45/threonine 41 (Ser45/Thr41) at the cytoplasm/nuclei and the membrane, respectively. Treating ECs with SMC-conditional medium induced β-catenin phosphorylation only at Ser45/Thr41. These findings indicate that different phosphorylation effects of EC-SMC coculture were induced through heterocellular direct contact and paracrine effects, respectively. Using specific blocking peptides, antagonists, and siRNAs, we found that the β-catenin Tyr142-phosphorylation was mediated by connexin 43/Fer and that the β-catenin Ser45/Thr41-phosphorylation was mediated by SMC-released bone morphogenetic proteins through VE-cadherin and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II/Smad5. Transfecting ECs with β-catenin-Tyr142 or -Ser45 mutants showed that these two phosphorylated forms of β-catenin modulate differential EC function: The Tyr142-phosphorylated β-catenin stimulates vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 expression to increase EC-monocytic adhesion, but the Ser45/Thr41-phosphorylated β-catenin attenuates VE-cadherin-dependent junction structures to increase EC permeability. Our findings provide new insights into the understanding of regulatory complexities of distinct modes of β-catenin phosphorylations under EC-SMC interactions and suggest that different phosphorylated forms of β-catenin play important roles in modulating vascular pathophysiology through different heterocellular interactions.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; 111(5). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1323761111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The implication of circulating haematopoietic CD34(+) progenitors in the vasculature is unclear due to the lack of understanding of their characteristics and plasticity mediated by their cellular microenvironment. We investigated how vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and their interactions with endothelial cells (ECs) affect the behaviour and plasticity of CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitors and the underlying mechanisms.
Human peripheral blood-derived CD34(+)CD31(+) cells were directly transplanted into injured arteries in vivo and co-cultured with ECs and SMCs in vitro. CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitors injected into wire-injured mouse arteries differentiate into ECs and macrophages in the neoendothelial layer and neointima, respectively. SMC-co-culture increases CD34(+)CD31(+) cell mobility and adhesion to and transmigration across ECs. Sorted CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitors that adhered to ECs co-cultured with SMCs have the capacity to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel and chimeric blood vessels in vivo. Sorted transmigrated progenitors give rise to macrophages with increased pro-angiogenic activity. These differentiations of CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitors into ECs and macrophages are mediated by β(2)-integrin and Notch-1, respectively. β(2)-Integrin and Notch-1 are activated by their counterligands, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and jagged-1, which are highly expressed in the neoendothelium and neointima in injured arteries. Intra-arterial injection of β(2)-integrin-activated CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitors into wire-injured mouse arteries inhibits neointima formation.
Our findings indicate that the peripheral vascular niches composed of ECs and SMCs may predispose haematopoietic CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitors to differentiate into ECs and macrophages through the activations of the ICAM-1/β(2)-integrin and jagged-1/Notch-1 cascades, respectively.
Cardiovascular Research 08/2012; 96(2):296-307. DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvs256 · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are exposed to different flow patterns (i.e., disturbed vs. laminar), and the associated oscillatory shear stress (OSS) or pulsatile shear stress (PSS) lead to differential responses. We investigated the roles of class I and II histone deacetylases (HDAC-1/2/3 and HDAC-5/7, respectively) in regulating NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and Krüppel-like factor-2 (KLF2), two transcription factors governing many shear-responsive genes, and the cell cycle in ECs in response to OSS. Application of OSS (0.5 ± 4 dynes/cm(2)) to cultured ECs sustainably up-regulated class I and II HDACs and their nuclear accumulation, whereas PSS (12 ± 4 dynes/cm(2)) induced phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of class II HDACs. En face immunohistochemical examination of rat aortic arch and experimentally stenosed abdominal aorta revealed high HDAC-2/3/5 levels in ECs in areas exposed to disturbed flow. OSS induced the association of HDAC-1/2/3 with Nrf2 and HDAC-3/5/7 with myocyte enhancer factor-2; deacetylation of these factors led to down-regulation of antioxidant gene NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and KLF2. HDAC-1/2/3- and HDAC-3/5/7-specific small interfering RNAs eliminated the OSS-induced down-regulation of NQO1 and KLF2, respectively. OSS up-regulated cyclin A and down-regulated p21(CIP1) in ECs and induced their proliferation; these effects were mediated by HDAC-1/2/3. Intraperitoneal administration of the class I-specific HDAC inhibitor valproic acid into bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-infused rats inhibited the increased EC uptake of BrdU at poststenotic sites. The OSS-induced HDAC signaling and EC responses are mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. Our findings demonstrate the important roles of different groups of HDACs in regulating the oxidative, inflammatory, and proliferative responses of ECs to disturbed flow with OSS.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2012; 109(6):1967-72. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1121214109 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstitial flow in and around bone tissue is oscillatory in nature and affects the mechanical microenvironment for bone
cell growth and formation. We investigated the role of oscillatory shear stress (OSS) in modulating the proliferation of human
osteoblast-like MG63 cells and its underlying mechanisms. Application of OSS (0.5 ± 4 dynes/cm2) to MG63 cells induced sustained activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K (p70S6 kinase) signaling
cascades and hence cell proliferation, which was accompanied by increased expression of cyclins A and D1, cyclin-dependent
protein kinases-2, -4, and -6, and bone formation-related genes (c-fos, Egr-1, and Cox-2) and decreased expression of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1. OSS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K and cell proliferation were inhibited by specific antibodies or small interference
RNAs of αvβ3 and β1 integrins and by dominant-negative mutants of Shc (Shc-SH2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (FAK(F397Y)). Co-immunoprecipitation
assay showed that OSS induces sustained increases in association of Shc and FAK with αvβ3 and β1 integrins and PI3K subunit p85, which were abolished by transfecting the cells with FAK(F397Y) or Shc-SH2. OSS also induced
sustained activation of ERK, which was inhibited by the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and was required for OSS-induced
activation of mTOR/p70S6K and proliferation in MG63 cells. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which OSS
induces osteoblast-like cell proliferation through activation of αvβ3 and β1 integrins and synergistic interactions of FAK and Shc with PI3K, leading to the modulation of downstream ERK and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell cycle regulation by differentiation signals is critical for eukaryote development. We investigated the roles of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, an important stimulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, in regulating cell cycle distribution in four osteoblast-like cell lines and mouse primary osteoblasts, and the underlying mechanisms. In all cells used, BMP-4 induced G(0)/G(1) arrest. The molecular basis of the BMP-4 effect was analyzed, and the presentation on molecular mechanism is focused on human MG63 cells. BMP-4 induced p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) expressions and hence cell differentiation but had no effects on the expressions of cyclins A, B1, D1, and E, cyclin-dependent protein kinase-2, -4, and -6. Using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), we found that BMP-4-induced G(0)/G(1) arrest, and p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) expressions were mediated by BMP receptor type IA (BMPRIA)-specific Sma- and Mad-related protein (Smad)1/5. BMP-4 induced transient phosphorylations of ERK; transfection of MG63 cells with ERK2, but not ERK1, -specific siRNA inhibited the BMP-4-induced responses in MG63 cells. Pretreatment of MG63 cells with Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which blocks the cell-extracellular matrix interaction, or transfection with beta(3) integrin-specific siRNA inhibited BMP-4-induced ERK and Smad1/5 phosphorylations. BMP-4 induced transient increases in associations of beta(3)-integrin with focal adhesion kinase and Shc, the dominant-negative mutants of which inhibited BMP-4-induced ERK and Smad1/5 phosphorylations. Our results indicate that BMP-4 induces G(0)/G(1) arrest and hence differentiation in osteoblast-like cells through increased expressions of p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1), which are mediated by BMPRIA-specific Smad1/5. The extracellular matrix/beta(3) integrin/ focal adhesion kinase/Shc/ERK2 signaling pathway is involved in these BMP-4-induced responses in osteoblast-like cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrins play significant roles in mechanical responses of cells on extracellular matrix (ECM). We studied the roles of integrins and ECM proteins (fibronectin [FN], type I collagen [COL1], and laminin [LM]) in shear-mediated signaling and the expression of bone formation-related genes (early growth response-1 [Egr-1], c-fos, cyclooxygenase-2 [Cox-2], and osteopontin [OPN]) in human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. MG63 cells on FN, COL1, and LM were kept as controls or subjected to shear stress (12 dynes/cm(2)), and the association of alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1) integrins with Shc, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, i.e., extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK], c-jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase [JNK], and p38), and expressions of Egr-1, c-fos, Cox-2, and OPN were determined. In MG63 cells, shear stress induces sustained associations of alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1) with Shc when seeded on FN, but sustained associations of only beta(1) with Shc when seeded on COL1/LM. Shear inductions of MAPKs and bone formation-related genes were sustained (24 h) in cells on FN, but some of these responses were transient in cells on COL1/LM. The shear activations of ERK, JNK, and p38 were mediated by integrins and Shc, and these pathways differentially modulated the downstream bone formation-related gene expression. Our findings showed that beta(1) integrin plays predominant roles for shear-induced signaling and gene expression in osteoblast-like MG63 cells on FN, COL1, and LM and that alpha(v)beta(3) also plays significant roles for such responses in cells on FN. The beta(1)/Shc association leads to the activation of ERK, which is critical for shear induction of bone formation-related genes in osteoblast-like cells.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 08/2008; 23(7):1140-9. DOI:10.1359/jbmr.080302 · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstitial flow in and around tumor tissue affects the mechanical microenvironment to modulate tumor cell growth and metastasis. We investigated the roles of flow-induced shear stress in modulating cell cycle distribution in four tumor cell lines and the underlying mechanisms. In all four cell lines, incubation under static conditions for 24 or 48 h led to G(0)/G(1) arrest; in contrast, shear stress (12 dynes/cm(2)) induced G(2)/M arrest. The molecular basis of the shear effect was analyzed, and the presentation on molecular mechanism is focused on human MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Shear stress induced increased expressions of cyclin B1 and p21(CIP1) and decreased expressions of cyclins A, D1, and E, cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdk)-1, -2, -4, and -6, and p27(KIP1) as well as a decrease in Cdk1 activity. Using specific antibodies and small interfering RNA, we found that the shear-induced G(2)/M arrest and corresponding changes in G(2)/M regulatory protein expression and activity were mediated by alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1) integrins through bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IA-specific Smad1 and Smad5. Shear stress also down-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) binding activity and osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase expressions in MG63 cells; these responses were mediated by alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1) integrins through Smad5. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism by which shear stress induces G(2)/M arrest in tumor cells and inhibits cell differentiation and demonstrate the importance of mechanical microenvironment in modulating molecular signaling, gene expression, cell cycle, and functions in tumor cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2008; 105(10):3927-32. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0712353105 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E-selectin is a major adhesion molecule expressed by endothelial cells (ECs), which are exposed to shear stress and neighboring smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We investigated the mechanisms underlying the modulation of EC E-selectin expression by SMCs and shear stress. SMC coculture induced rapid and sustained increases in expression of E-selectin and phosphorylation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase glycoprotein-130, as well as the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt. By using specific inhibitors, dominant-negative mutants, and small interfering RNA, we demonstrated that activations of c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 of the MAPK pathways are critical for the coculture-induced E-selectin expression. Gel shifting and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that SMC coculture increased the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-promoter binding activity in ECs; inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by p65-antisense, lactacystin, and N-acetyl-cysteine blocked the coculture-induced E-selectin promoter activity. Protein arrays and blocking assays using neutralizing antibodies demonstrated that IL-1beta and IL-6 produced by EC/SMC cocultures are major contributors to the coculture induction of EC signaling and E-selectin expression. Preshearing of ECs at 12 dynes/cm(2) inhibited the coculture-induced EC signaling and E-selectin expression. Our findings have elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying the SMC induction of EC E-selectin expression and the shear stress protection against this SMC induction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are influenced by shear stress and neighboring smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We investigated the inflammation-relevant gene expression in EC/SMC cocultures under static condition and in response to shear stress.
Under static condition, DNA microarrays and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction identified 23 inflammation-relevant genes in ECs whose expression was significantly affected by coculture with SMCs, with 18 upregulated and 5 downregulated. Application of shear stress (12 dynes/cm2) to the EC side of the coculture for 6 hours inhibited most of the proinflammatory gene expressions in ECs induced by coculture with SMCs. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation by the p65-antisense, lactacystin, and N-acetyl-cysteine blocked the coculture-induced EC expression of proinflammatory genes, indicating that the NF-kappaB binding sites in the promoters of these genes play a significant role in their expression as a result of coculture with SMCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the in vivo regulation of NF-kappaB recruitment to selected target promoters. Shear stress inhibited the SMC coculture-induced NF-kappaB activation in ECs and monocytic THP-1 cell adhesion to ECs.
Our findings suggest that shear stress plays an inhibitory role in the proinflammatory gene expression in ECs located in close proximity to SMCs.