Frank De Proft

Free University of Brussels, Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium

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Publications (281)801.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The reactivity of bis(organoamino)phosphanes PhP(NHR)(NHR′) (1a–1c, in which R, R′ = tBu for 1a; tBu, Dip for 1b; and Ph for 1c; Dip = C6H3–2,6-iPr2) and tBuP(NHDip)2 (1d) with Me3Al was investigated. The reaction of 1a or 1b gave in the first step compounds [PhP(NHR)(NR′)]AlMe2 (in which R, R′ = tBu for 2a; tBu, Dip for 2b) as a result of methane elimination that upon heating underwent nitrogen-to-phosphorus hydrogen-atom migration under the formation of diiminophosphinates [Ph(H)P(NR)(NR′)]AlMe2 (in which R, R′ = tBu for 3a; tBu, Dip for 3b). In contrast, phosphane 1c showed a reversed reaction sequence that yielded an intermediate [Ph(H)P(NHPh)(=NPh)]AlMe3 (2c) first as a consequence of hydrogen-atom migration followed by the methane elimination and formation of diiminophosphinate [Ph(H)P(NPh)2]AlMe2 (3c). The partial deprotonation of 1a,b,d using one molar equivalent of nBuLi followed by the treatment with AlCl3 smoothly produced compounds [Ph(H)P(NR)(NR′)]AlCl2 (in which R, R′ = tBu for 4a; tBu, Dip for 4b) and [tBu(H)P(NDip)2]AlCl2 (4d), in which the hydrogen atom was again shifted from the nitrogen to the phosphorus atom. All studied compounds were characterized with the help of elemental analysis; 1H, 13C{1H}, 31P, and 31P{1H} NMR spectra; and in the case of 3c, 4a, 4b, and 4d by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The phenomenon of the hydrogen-atom migration was subjected also to a theoretical survey with particular emphasis on the influence of the phosphane used.
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 09/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide is a natural oxidant that can oxidize protein thiols (\ce{RSH}) via sulfenic acid (\ce{RSOH}) and sulfinic acid (\ce{RSO2H}) to sulfonic acid (\ce{RSO3H}). In this paper, we study the complete anionic and neutral oxidation pathway from thiol to sulfonic acid. Reaction barriers and reaction free energies for all three oxidation steps are computed, both for the isolated substrates and for the substrates in the presence of different model ligands (\ce{CH4}, \ce{H2O}, \ce{NH3}) mimicking the enzymatic environment. We found for all three barriers that the anionic thiolate is more reactive than the neutral thiol. However, the assistance of the environment in the neutral pathway in a Solvent Assisted Proton Exchange mechanism (SAPE) can lower the reaction barrier noticeably. Polar ligands can decrease the reaction barriers, while apolar ligands don't influence the barrier heights. The same holds for the reaction energies: they decrease (become more negative) in the presence of polar ligands while apolar ligands don't have an influence. The consistently negative consecutive reaction energies for the oxidation in the anionic pathway when going from thiolate over sulfenic and sulfinic acid to sulfonic acid are in agreement with biological reversibility.
    The journal of physical chemistry. A. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tuning the band gap of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) by chemical edge functionalization is a promising approach towards future electronic devices based on graphene. The band gap is closely related to the aromaticity distribution and therefore tailoring the aromaticity patterns is a rational way for controlling the band gap. In our work, it is shown how to control the aromaticity distribution and the band-gap in both armchair and zigzag GNRs. We perform periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the electronic structure and the aromaticity distribution, using delocalization and geometry analysis methods like the six-center index (SCI) and the mean bond length (MBL). These results are compared with nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) transport property calculations. We also provide a complete description of the relation between band gap, transport properties, and aromaticity distribution along these materials, based on DFT results and Clar's sextet theory.
    Techconnect World 2014, Washington D.C.; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Six palladium(II) complexes bearing three different triazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, [1-tert-butyl-4-{2-[(N,N-dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl}-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-5-ide, 1-tert-butyl-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-5-ide, and 1-tert-butyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-5-ide], were synthesized and fully characterized. NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the amino-group-substituted NHC ligand is coordinated in bidentate fashion, forming a monocarbene chelate complex with an additional intramolecular Pd ← N bond with the nitrogen donor atom. The 4-methylphenyl- and 2-methoxyphenyl-substituted NHC ligands coordinate as C-monodentate donors, forming simple biscarbene Pd(II) complexes. The evaluation of the catalytic performance in the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction revealed very promising performance of the intramolecularly coordinated monocarbene complexes under relatively mild conditions even in direct comparison with the commercially available PEPPSI catalyst. In contrast, the biscarbene complexes proved inactive in this catalytic process. According to theoretical calculations (EDA and NOCV analysis), functionalization of the 1,2,4-triazole-based NHC with the 2-[(N,N-dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl group has a significant effect on the stability of the NHC–metal bond.
    Organometallics 06/2014; 33(12):3108–3118. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insight into the key factors driving the competition of halogen and hydrogen bonds is obtained by studying the affinity of the Lewis bases trimethylamine (TMA), dimethyl ether (DME), and methyl fluoride (MF) towards difluoroiodomethane (CHF2I). Analysis of the infrared and Raman spectra of solutions in liquid krypton containing mixtures of TMA and CHF2I and of DME and CHF2I reveals that for these Lewis bases hydrogen and halogen-bonded complexes appear simultaneously. In contrast, only a hydrogen-bonded complex is formed for the mixtures of CHF2I and MF. The complexation enthalpies for the CH⋅⋅⋅Y hydrogen-bonded complexes with TMA, DME, and MF are determined to be −14.7(2), −10.5(5) and −5.1(6) kJ mol−1, respectively. The values for the CI⋅⋅⋅Y halogen-bonded isomers are −19.0(3) kJ mol−1 for TMA and −9.9(8) kJ mol−1 for DME. Generalization of the observed trends suggests that, at least for the bases studied here, softer Lewis bases such as TMA favor halogen bonding, whereas harder bases such as MF show a substantial preference for hydrogen bonding.
    Chemistry 06/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The photophysics of interstellar ices and condensed molecules adsorbed on grains is of primary importance for studies on the origin of the specific handedness of complex organic molecules delivered to the early Earth and of the homochirality of the building blocks of life. Here, we present quantum mechanical calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory for the absorption and circular dichroism (CD) of isovaline and its chiral precursor 5-ethyl-5-methylhydantoin, both observed in meteoritic findings. The systems are considered in their geometrical conformation as extracted from a full solid (icy) matrix, as a shortcut to understand the behaviour of molecules with fixed orientation, and/or taking into account the full solid matrix. In the context of a possible `condensation-warming plus hydrolysis-recondensation' process, we obtain that: (i) for low-energy excitations, the `condensed' precursor has a stronger CD with respect to the amino acid, suggesting that the handedness of the latter could be biased by asymmetric photolysis of the precursor in cold environments; (ii) enantiomeric excess could in principle be induced more efficiently in both systems for excitation at higher energies (VUV). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy and related CD results could serve as support for future experiments on ionization channels.
    04/2014; 440(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Novel organic–inorganic hybrids of various sizes were generated by reaction of 1,8‐octanediphosphonic acid (ODP) and (NH4)6Mo7O24 in aqueous solution. The formation of rodlike hybrids with variable numbers of covalently bound ODP and polyoxomolybdate (POM) units can be tuned as a function of increasing (NH4)6Mo7O24 concentration at fixed ODP concentration. The chemical structure of the ODP/POM hybrids was characterized by 1H, 31P, and 95Mo NMR spectroscopy. Heteronuclear 31P DOSY (diffusion‐ ordered NMR spectroscopy) and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations were applied to determine the size and shape of the nanosized hybrids generated at various ODP/POM ratios. For this purpose, the structures of ODP/POM hybrids with variable numbers of ODP and POM units were optimized by MM and then approximated as cylinder‐shaped objects by using a recently described mathematical algorithm. The thus‐obtained cylinder length and diameter were further used to calculate the expected diffusion coefficients of the ODP/POM hybrids. Comparison of the calculated and experimentally determined diffusion coefficients led to the most probable ODP/POM hybrid length for each sample composition. The 31P DOSY results show that the length of the hybrids increases with increasing POM concentration and reaches a maximum corresponding to an average of 8 ODP/7 POM units per chain at a sample composition of 20 mM ODP and 14 mM POM. With excess POM, above the latter concentration, the formation of shorter‐chain hybrids terminated by Mo7 clusters at one or both ends was evidenced on further increasing the POM concentration. The results demonstrate that the combination of 31P DOSY and MM, although virtually unexplored in POM chemistry, is a powerful innovative strategy for the detailed characterization of nanosized organic–inorganic POM‐based hybrids in solution. Rodlike organic–inorganic hybrids with variable numbers of covalently bound 1,8‐octanediphosphonic acid (ODP) and polyoxomolybdate (NH4)6Mo7O24 (POM) units were generated in aqueous solution. The structure, size, and shape of the ODP/POM hybrids as a function of ODP:POM molar ratio were determined by 31P DOSY NMR and molecular mechanics calculations, in combination with 1H, 31P, and 95Mo NMR spectroscopy. Comparison of the calculated (D calcd) and experimentally determined diffusion coefficients (D exptl) led to the most probable ODP/POM hybrid length for each sample composition (see figure).
    Chemistry 04/2014; 20(18). · 5.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein thiol/sulfenic acid oxidation potentials provide a tool to select specific oxidation agents, but are experimentally difficult to obtain. Here, insights into the thiol sulfenylation thermodynamics are obtained from model calculations on small systems and from a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) analysis on human 2-Cys peroxiredoxin thioredoxin peroxidase B (Tpx-B). To study thiol sulfenylation in Tpx-B, our recently developed computational method to determine reduction potentials relatively compared to a reference system and based on reaction energies reduction potential from electronic energies is updated. Tpx-B forms a sulfenic acid (R-SO(-)) on one of its active site cysteines during reactive oxygen scavenging. The observed effect of the conserved active site residues is consistent with the observed hydrogen bond interactions in the QM/MM optimized Tpx-B structures and with free energy calculations on small model systems. The ligand effect could be linked to the complexation energies of ligand L with CH3S(-) and CH3SO(-). Compared to QM only calculations on Tpx-B's active site, the QM/MM calculations give an improved understanding of sulfenylation thermodynamics by showing that other residues from the protein environment other than the active site residues can play an important role.
    Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics 04/2014; · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    Chemistry 04/2014; 20(17):4841. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings, such as π-stacking and CH/π interactions, are central to many areas of modern chemistry. However, recent studies proved that aromaticity is not required for stacking interactions, since similar interaction energies were computed for several aromatic and aliphatic dimers. Herein, the nature and origin of π/π, σ/σ, and σ/π dispersion interactions has been investigated by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory, energy decomposition analysis, and the recently developed noncovalent interaction (NCI) method. Our analysis shows that π/π and σ/σ stacking interactions are equally important for the benzene and cyclohexane dimers, explaining why both compounds have similar boiling points. Also, similar dispersion forces are found in the benzene⋅⋅⋅methane and cyclohexane⋅⋅⋅methane complexes. However, for systems larger than naphthalene, there are enhanced stacking interactions in the aromatic dimers adopting a parallel-displaced configuration compared to the analogous saturated systems. Although dispersion plays a decisive role in stabilizing all the complexes, the origin of the π/π, σ/σ, and σ/π interactions is different. The NCI method reveals that the dispersion interactions between the hydrogen atoms are responsible for the surprisingly strong aliphatic interactions. Moreover, whereas σ/σ and σ/π interactions are local, the π/π stacking are inherently delocalized, which give rise to a non-additive effect. These new types of dispersion interactions between saturated groups can be exploited in the rational design of novel carbon materials.
    Chemistry 04/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    M Alonso, P Geerlings, F De Proft
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    ABSTRACT: N-fused pentaphyrins (NFP) are the stable forms of fully meso-aryl pentaphyrins( In order to determine the optimum conditions for viable Möbius topologies of these porphyrinoids, the conformational preferences, Hückel-Möbius interconversion pathways and aromaticity of [22] and [24]NFP have been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The conformation of the macrocycle is shown to be strongly dependent on the oxidation state and the macrocyclic aromaticity. [22]NFP prefers a highly aromatic and relatively strain-free Hückel conformation. However, antiaromatic Hückel and weakly aromatic Möbius conformers coexist in dynamic equilibrium in [24]NFP. The Hückel-Möbius aromaticity switch requires very low activation energy barriers (Ea = 3-4 kcal mol(-1)). Interestingly, the balance between Möbius and Hückel conformations in [24]NFP can be controlled by meso-substituents. The structure-property relationship between the molecular conformation, number of π electrons and aromaticity has been established in our study using energetic, magnetic, structural, and reactivity descriptors of aromaticity. Although the Möbius topology is indeed accessible for [24]NFP, it does not exhibit a distinct macrocyclic aromaticity mainly due to the large dihedral angles around the molecular twist. Regarding the computational methodology, B3LYP and M06 show the best overall performance for describing the experimental geometries of NFP and, importantly, our computational results support the experimental evidence available for N-fused pentaphyrins.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 03/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Within the context of reactivity descriptors known in conceptual DFT, the linear response function (χ(r,r')) remained nearly unexploited. Although well known, in its time dependent form, in the solid state physics and time-dependent DFT communities the study of the "chemistry" present in the kernel was, until recently, relatively unexplored. The evaluation of the linear response function as such and its study in the time independent form are highlighted in the present review. On the fundamental side, the focus is on the approaches of increasing complexity to compute and represent χ(r,r'), its visualisation going from plots of the unintegrated χ(r,r') to an atom condensed matrix. The study on atoms reveals its physical significance, retrieving atomic shell structure, while the results on molecules illustrate that a variety of chemical concepts are retrieved: inductive and mesomeric effects, electron delocalisation, aromaticity and anti-aromaticity, σ and π aromaticity,…. The applications show that the chemistry of aliphatic (saturated and unsaturated) chains, saturated and aromatic/anti-aromatic rings, organic, inorganic or metallic in nature, can be retrieved via the linear response function, including the variation of the electronic structure of the reagents along a reaction path. The connection of the linear response function with the concept of nearsightedness and the alchemical derivatives is also highlighted.
    Chemical Society Reviews 02/2014; · 24.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our attempts to synthesize the N→Si intramolecularly coordinated organosilanes Ph2 L(1) SiH (1 a), PhL(1) SiH2 (2 a), Ph2 L(2) SiH (3 a), and PhL(2) SiH2 (4 a) containing a CHN imine group (in which L(1) is the C,N-chelating ligand {2-[CHN(C6 H3 -2,6-iPr2 )]C6 H4 }(-) and L(2) is {2-[CHN(tBu)]C6 H4 }(-) ) yielded 1-[2,6-bis(diisopropyl)phenyl]-2,2-diphenyl-1-aza-silole (1), 1-[2,6-bis(diisopropyl)phenyl]-2-phenyl-2-hydrido-1-aza-silole (2), 1-tert-butyl-2,2-diphenyl-1-aza-silole (3), and 1-tert-butyl-2-phenyl-2-hydrido-1-aza-silole (4), respectively. Isolated organosilicon amides 1-4 are an outcome of the spontaneous hydrosilylation of the CHN imine moiety induced by N→Si intramolecular coordination. Compounds 1-4 were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The geometries of organosilanes 1 a-4 a and their corresponding hydrosilylated products 1-4 were optimized and fully characterized at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. The molecular structure determination of 1-3 suggested the presence of a SiN double bond. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, however, shows a very strong donor-acceptor interaction between the lone pair of the nitrogen atom and the formal empty p orbital on the silicon and therefore, the calculations show that the SiN bond is highly polarized pointing to a predominantly zwitterionic Si(+) N(-) bond in 1-4. Since compounds 1-4 are hydrosilylated products of 1 a-4 a, the free energies (ΔG298 ), enthalpies (ΔH298 ), and entropies (ΔH298 ) were computed for the hydrosilylation reaction of 1 a-4 a with both B3LYP and B3LYP-D methods. On the basis of the very negative ΔG298 values, the hydrosilylation reaction is highly exergonic and compounds 1 a-4 a are spontaneously transformed into 1-4 in the absence of a catalyst.
    Chemistry 01/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a theoretical investigation focusing on the solvent structure surrounding the -1, 0 and +1 charged species of F, Cl, Br and I halogen atoms and F2, Cl2, Br2 and I2 di-halogen molecules in a methanol solvent and its influence on the electronic structure of the solute molecules. Our results show a large stabilizing effect arising from the solute-solvent interactions. Well-formed first solvation shells are observed for all species, the structure of which is strongly influenced by the charge of the solute species. Detailed analysis reveals that coordination number, CN, solvent orientation, θ, and solute-solvent distance, d, are important structural characteristics which are coupled to changes in the electronic structure of the solute. We propose that the fundamental chemistry of any solute species is generally regulated by these solvent degrees of freedom.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 01/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The essential aspects of zero-temperature grand-canonical ensemble density-functional theory are reviewed in the context of spin-density-functional theory and are used to highlight the assumption of symmetry between electron addition and subtraction that underlies the corrected Koopmans approach of Tozer and De Proft (TDP) for computing electron affinities. The issue of symmetry is then investigated in a systematic study of atomic electron affinities, comparing TDP affinities with those from a conventional Koopmans evaluation and electronic energy differences. Although it cannot compete with affinities determined from energy differences, the TDP expression yields results that are a significant improvement over those from the conventional Koopmans expression. Key insight into the results from both expressions is provided by an analysis of plots of the electronic energy as a function of the number of electrons, which highlight the extent of symmetry between addition and subtraction. The accuracy of the TDP affinities is closely related to the nature of the orbitals involved in the electron addition and subtraction, being particularly poor in cases where there is a change in principal quantum number, but relatively accurate within a single manifold of orbitals. The analysis is then extended to a consideration of the ground state Mulliken electronegativity and chemical hardness. The findings further emphasize the key role of symmetry in determining the quality of the results.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 01/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homobimetallic metallophilic interactions between copper, silver, and gold-based [(NHC)MX]-type complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene, i.e, 1,3,4-trimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene; X=F, Cl, Br, I) were investigated by means of ab initio interaction energies, Ziegler-Rauk-type energy-decomposition analysis, the natural orbital for chemical valence (NOCV) framework, and the noncovalent interaction (NCI) index. It was found that the dimers of these complexes predominantly adopt a head-to-tail arrangement with typical M⋅⋅⋅M distance of 3.04-3.64 Å, in good agreement with the experimental X-ray structure determined for [{(NHC)AuCl}2 ], which has an Au⋅⋅⋅Au distance of 3.33 Å. The interaction energies between silver- and gold-based monomers are calculated to be about -25 kcal mol(-1) , whereas that for the Cu congener is significantly lower (-19.7 kcal mol(-1) ). With the inclusion of thermal and solvent contributions, both of which are destabilizing, by about 15 and 8 kcal mol(-1) , respectively, an equilibrium process is predicted for the formation of dimer complexes. Energy-decomposition analysis revealed a dominant electrostatic contribution to the interaction energy, besides significantly stabilizing dispersion and orbital interactions. This electrostatic contribution is rationalized by NHC(δ(+) )⋅⋅⋅halogen(δ(-) ) interactions between monomers, as demonstrated by electrostatic potentials and derived charges. The dominant NOCV orbital indicates weakening of the π backdonation in the monomers on dimer formation, whereas the second most dominant NOCV represents an electron-density deformation according to the formation of a very weak M⋅⋅⋅M bond. One of the characteristic signals found in the reduced density gradient versus electron density diagram corresponds to the noncovalent interactions between the metal centers of the monomers in the NCI plots, which is the manifestation of metallophilic interaction.
    Chemistry 12/2013; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: doi: 10.1021/jp410032h
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 11/2013; · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we verify the usefulness of the alchemical derivatives in the prediction of chemical properties. We concentrate on the stability of the transmutation products, where the term “transmutation” means the change of the nuclear charge at an atomic site at constant number of electrons. As illustrative transmutations showing the potential of the method in exploring Chemical Space, we present some examples of increasing complexity starting with the deprotonation, continuing with the transmutation of the nitrogen molecule, and ending with the substitution of isoelectronic B-N units for C-C units and N units for C-H units in carbocyclic systems. The basis set influence on the qualitative and quantitative accuracies of the alchemical predictions was investigated. The alchemical deprotonation energy (from the second order Taylor expansion) correlates well with the vertical deprotonation energy and can be used as a preliminary indicator for the experimental deprotonation energy. The results of calculations for the BN derivatives of benzene and pyrene show that this method has great potential for efficient and accurate scanning of Chemical Space.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 10/2013; · 5.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
801.50 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2014
    • Free University of Brussels
      • • Ultrastructure (ULTR)
      • • General Chemistry (ALGC)
      • • Faculty of Science and Bio-engineering Sciences
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 2009–2013
    • University of Pardubice
      • Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry
      Pardubice, Pardubicky kraj, Czech Republic
    • Bogazici University
      • Department of Chemistry
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2012
    • Duke University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Chile
      • Departamento de Física (Ciencias)
      Santiago, Region Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile
    • Ghent University
      • Center for Molecular Modeling
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 2010
    • Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Provo, UT, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Oslo
      • Department of Chemistry
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    • Universiteit Hasselt
      • Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Modelling Research Group (TCMM)
      Hasselt, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2007–2008
    • Budapest University of Technology and Economics
      • Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry
      Budapest, Budapest fovaros, Hungary
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2005–2008
    • Universidad Andrés Bello
      • • Faculty of Ecology and Natural Resources
      • • Department of Chemistry
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
    • University of Exeter
      Exeter, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2007
    • Durham University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Durham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2007
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      • Quantum Chemistry and Photophysics Unit
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
    • Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2006
    • Sabanci University
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey