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Publications (6)6.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Topical bioavailability of lipid- and water-soluble vitamins is a critical issue for protecting or anti-ageing formulations. Using 17-day-old SkinEthic(®) reconstructed human epidermis, we investigated (at 34°C) the role of lemon EO in enhancing the penetration of α-tocopherol (E) and retinyl acetate (A), pyridoxine (B(6)) and ascorbic acid (C), released from O/W or W/O emulsions. D-limonene, α-pinene and p-cymene (65.9, 2.2 and 0.5%w/w of the oil) had skin permeability coefficients Ps (10(-3) cm h(-1)) of 0.56 ± 0.03 (or 0.73 ± 0.02), 0.72 ± 0.05 (or 0.98 ± 0.05) and 0.84 ± 0.04 (or 1.14 ± 0.04), respectively, when incorporated in a W/O (or O/W) emulsion. Vitamins B6, C and A had Ps values of (3.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-3), (7.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-3) and (0.37 ± 0.02) × 10(-5) cm h(-1), respectively, and their flux through the skin was enhanced by a factor of 4.1, 3.4 and 5.8, respectively, in the presence of lemon EO. The penetration of vitamin E was nine-fold enhanced. Lemon EO produced only reversible modification of TEWL, and it is a safe and effective penetration enhancer for topical administration of lipid- and water-soluble vitamins.
    International journal of cosmetic science 04/2012; 34(4):347-56.
  • Elena Lucchi, Riccardo Matera
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    ABSTRACT: Plant essential oils have been used for centuries in the preparation of cosmetic fragrances and food flavors, as well as in traditional medicines as therapeutic remedies. In recent years they have been attracting the renewed interest of both the scientific community and the general public. Their use in different aspects of human life is generally regarded as being part of a healthier, natural-oriented life style. On the other hand, a wealth of scientific studies has been documenting their biological properties, particularly associated with their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, although additional medicinal properties have also been brought to light. This book offers an up-to-date examination of scientific literature on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of main dietary essential oils from all over the world, together with a general introduction to their chemistry, classification, bio-synthetic origin, preparation and analysis.
    Essential Oils as Natural Food Additives: Composition, Applications, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties, Edited by Luca Valgimigli, 01/2012: chapter Essential oils as active ingredients in functional foods and nutraceutical formulations: pages 427-447; Nova Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-62100-282-6
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    ABSTRACT: Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by intestinal lactase deficiency, and a lactose-free diet represents the simplest way to avoid gastrointestinal symptoms. The emerging use of dietary supplements requires analytical tools that are capable of assessing these analytes, particularly for those based on dry herbal extracts that contain lactose together with maltose and sucrose, because of cross-contamination and/or deliberate addition as excipient. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and MS/MS are valuable detection methods for underivatized disaccharides; however, the absence of distinctive ions and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns does not allow discrimination of stereoisomers without good chromatographic resolution. We developed an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ESI (U-HPLC-ESI) approach, based on porous graphitic carbon (PGC) columns, working at 5 °C to separate and detect the disaccharides in their anomeric forms as formate adducts obtained directly in-column by eluting with formate buffer/acetonitrile gradient mixtures. Using a Paul trap, we monitored the adducts [M + HCOO](-) at m/z 387 in ESI negative mode (MS(1)) as well as the CID fragment ion [M - H](-) at m/z 341 (MS(2)) and used MS(3) fragment ions at m/z 178 and 161 to confirm disaccharides identity in complex vegetable matrices. Complete resolution of lactose α- and β-anomers, maltose α- and β-anomers, and sucrose was obtained with R ≥ 2.0 for all peaks and selectivity α = 1.2 between α- and β-anomers of lactose. The limits of detection were in the range of 3-7 µg/l (ppb) for the target disaccharides. Because of the rapidity and good anomeric discrimination, the described method represents an alternative tool to investigate the mutarotation phenomenon for reducing disaccharides.
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 09/2010; 45(9):1012-8. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Foot malodor is mostly due to short-chain fatty acids produced by bacterial metabolism of eccrine sweating. We aimed to develop a protocol for an objective (instrumental) efficacy evaluation of foot deodorant formulations. Head-space solid-phase microextractions of target fatty acids from the feet of six healthy volunteers were analyzed by GC-MS. A comparative analysis of the treated vs. the untreated foot was performed in each subject after washing the feet with a physiologic solution and incubating at 36 degrees C for 24-72 h in tryptic soy agar growth medium. Acetic, butyric, isobutyric and isovaleric acids were identified as the main contributors to foot malodor in the majority of volunteers. Propionic, valeric and isocaproic acids were also detected in some subjects. Comparative analysis according to the protocol developed showed a statistically significant (P<0.01) reduction of target fatty acids ranging from -26.6% to -77.0%. The protocol developed is a convenient, sensitive and non-invasive method to test the efficacy of foot deodorant formulations in human volunteers.
    Skin Research and Technology 11/2009; 15(4):503-10. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The permeation of essential oils through SkinEthic® reconstructed human epidermis, (RHE), was studied in vitro to establish a convenient tool to monitor the kinetics of release of active principles from cosmetic formulations. Twelve days old human epidermis held on polycarbonate disks was revitalized by addition of growth medium and incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for five days prior to investigation. A system of six custom designed glass Franz-type diffusion cells were used for the permeation studies at 34 °C. The diffusion kinetic for 8 selected terpenes (camphor, carvone, 1,8-cineole, linalool, menthol, α-thujone, menthone, t-anethole), chosen as analytical markers of a mixture of plant essential oils contained in a cosmetic formulation, was probed by HS/SPME–GC–MS analysis and elaborated according to Fick's first law to obtain skin permeability coefficients (PS = 1.51, 1.47, 1.36, 0.80, 0.62, 0.40 and 0.14 × 10−3 cm/h, respectively). The method proved to be sensitive, simple and reproducible, and RHE represents a convenient model for safety/quality assessment of cosmetic formulations.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidants have been proposed, over the last decade, as functional ingredients for anti aging preparations and to prevent and modulate oxidative skin damages. Up to date, beside the photo-induced oxidative skin damages model, none in vivo protocols have shown sufficient reproducibility for the validation of the antioxidant claim for a cosmetic finished product. To this aim, we have recently anticipated a new in vivo protocol based on a microinflammatory model, driven by reactive oxygen species. In the present study our model was validated by comparison with four different instrumental methods. The effects of a pre-treatment of two different formulations based on antioxidant functional ingredients, were investigated on forearm skin of 15 healthy volunteers, and compared to a cosmetic base and control area. The instruments considered in the study were Chromameter (CR-300 Minolta), Tewameter TM 210 (Courage-khazaka, Cologne, Germany), Laser Doppler Perfusion Imager (PIM1.0 Lisca Development AB, Sweden), in comparison to DermAnalyzer(R), an easy to use software program developed by us, using the CIE L*a*b* color space parameters. The comparative measurements showed that the antioxidant formulations tested were all able to reduce, in different but statistically significant extent, the intensity of skin redness, and of cutaneous blood flow, when compared to control area (P < 0.0001). The methyl nicotinate (MN) based microinflammatory model, in conjunction with objective measure- ments, resulted an effective tool for in vivo assessment of oxidative skin injuries. In view of the high level of repeatability, short time of answer and simplicity, the procedure by us developed, is proposed as a possible protocol for the evaluation of in vivo efficacy of antioxidant functional ingredients in cosmetic formulations.
    Skin Research and Technology 08/2003; 9(3):245-53. · 1.41 Impact Factor