Krista K Bluske

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (5)22.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Neural progenitor cells within the developing thalamus are spatially organized into distinct populations. Their correct specification is critical for generating appropriate neuronal subtypes in specific locations during development. Secreted signaling molecules, such as sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Wnts, are required for the initial formation of the thalamic primordium. Once thalamic identity is established and neurogenesis is initiated, Shh regulates the positional identity of thalamic progenitor cells. Although Wnt/β-catenin signaling also has differential activity within the thalamus during this stage of development, its significance has not been directly addressed. In this study, we used conditional gene manipulations in mice and explored the roles of β-catenin signaling in the regional identity of thalamic progenitor cells. We found β-catenin is required during thalamic neurogenesis to maintain thalamic fate while suppressing prethalamic fate, demonstrating that regulation of regional fate continues to require extrinsic signals. These roles of β-catenin appeared to be mediated at least partly by regulating two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, Neurog1 and Neurog2. β-Catenin and Shh signaling function in parallel to specify two progenitor domains within the thalamus, where individual transcription factors expressed in each progenitor domain were regulated differently by the two signaling pathways. We conclude that β-catenin has multiple functions during thalamic neurogenesis and that both Shh and β-catenin pathways are important for specifying distinct types of thalamic progenitor cells, ensuring that the appropriate neuronal subtypes are generated in the correct locations.
    Development 06/2012; 139(15):2692-702. DOI:10.1242/dev.072314 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The size and cell number of each brain region are influenced by the organization and behavior of neural progenitor cells during embryonic development. Recent studies on developing neocortex have revealed the presence of neural progenitor cells that divide away from the ventricular surface and undergo symmetric divisions to generate either two neurons or two progenitor cells. These 'basal' progenitor cells form the subventricular zone and are responsible for generating the majority of neocortical neurons. However, not much has been studied on similar types of progenitor cells in other brain regions. We have identified and characterized basal progenitor cells in the embryonic mouse thalamus. The progenitor domain that generates all of the cortex-projecting thalamic nuclei contained a remarkably high proportion of basally dividing cells. Fewer basal progenitor cells were found in other progenitor domains that generate non-cortex projecting nuclei. By using intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD) as a marker for radial glial cells, we found that basally dividing cells extended outside the lateral limit of radial glial cells, indicating that, similar to the neocortex and ventral telencephalon, the thalamus has a distinct subventricular zone. Neocortical and thalamic basal progenitor cells shared expression of some molecular markers, including Insm1, Neurog1, Neurog2 and NeuroD1. Additionally, basal progenitor cells in each region also expressed exclusive markers, such as Tbr2 in the neocortex and Olig2 and Olig3 in the thalamus. In Neurog1/Neurog2 double mutant mice, the number of basally dividing progenitor cells in the thalamus was significantly reduced, which demonstrates the roles of neurogenins in the generation and/or maintenance of basal progenitor cells. In Pax6 mutant mice, the part of the thalamus that showed reduced Neurog1/2 expression also had reduced basal mitosis. Our current study establishes the existence of a unique and significant population of basal progenitor cells in the thalamus and their dependence on neurogenins and Pax6. These progenitor cells may have important roles in enhancing the generation of neurons within the thalamus and may also be critical for generating neuronal diversity in this complex brain region.
    Neural Development 11/2011; 6:35. DOI:10.1186/1749-8104-6-35 · 3.37 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: In neural development, several Wnt genes are expressed in the vertebrate diencephalon, including the thalamus. However, roles of Wnt signaling in the thalamus during neurogenesis are not well understood. We examined Wnt/beta-catenin activity in embryonic mouse thalamus and found that a Wnt target gene Axin2 and reporter activity of BAT-gal transgenic mice show similar, differential patterns within the thalamic ventricular zone, where ventral and rostral regions had lower activity than other regions. Expression of Wnt ligands and signaling components also showed complex, differential patterns. Finally, based on partially reciprocal patterns of Wnt and Shh signals in the thalamic ventricular zone, we tested if Shh signal is sufficient or necessary for the differential Axin2 expression. Analysis of mice with enhanced or reduced Shh signal showed that Axin2 expression is similar to controls. These results suggest that differential Wnt signaling may play a role in patterning the thalamus independent of Shh signaling.
    Developmental Dynamics 12/2009; 238(12):3297-309. DOI:10.1002/dvdy.22167 · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Krista K. Bluske, Yasushi Nakagawa
    Developmental Biology 07/2009; 331(2):524-524. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.05.511 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian thalamus is located in the diencephalon and is composed of dozens of morphologically and functionally distinct nuclei. The majority of these nuclei project axons to the neocortex in unique patterns and play critical roles in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. It has been assumed that the adult thalamus is derived from neural progenitor cells located within the alar plate of the caudal diencephalon. Nevertheless, how a distinct array of postmitotic thalamic nuclei emerge from this single developmental unit has remained largely unknown. Our recent studies found that these thalamic nuclei are in fact derived from molecularly heterogeneous populations of progenitor cells distributed within at least two distinct progenitor domains in the caudal diencephalon. In this study, we investigated how such molecular heterogeneity is established and maintained during early development of the thalamus and how early signaling mechanisms influence the formation of postmitotic thalamic nuclei. By using mouse genetics and in utero electroporation, we provide evidence that Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is normally expressed in ventral and rostral borders of the embryonic thalamus, plays a crucial role in patterning progenitor domains throughout the thalamus. We also show that increasing or decreasing Shh activity causes dramatic reorganization of postmitotic thalamic nuclei through altering the positional identity of progenitor cells.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 05/2009; 29(14):4484-97. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0656-09.2009 · 6.75 Impact Factor