Jui-Kuang Chen

VGHKS Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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Publications (8)21.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The risk of healthcare workers (HCWs) acquiring tuberculosis (TB) infection is high. We determined the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) in HCWs with a high Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine coverage in an intermediate TB burden country by using an interferon-gamma release assay [QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G)] and by using the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk factors associated with a positive test were determined. This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled HCWs from a medical center in Taiwan. Participants were grouped into workers without exposure (Group 1) and workers who self-reported a history of TB exposure (Group 2). All participants completed a questionnaire to collect demographic information and risk factors for acquiring TB. The QFT-G test and the TST were administered and risk factors for a positive test were analyzed. We recruited 193 HCWs [149 (77.2%) female workers] with a mean age of 35.6 years. All were BCG-vaccinated. The prevalence of LTBI was 88.8% (based on the TST) and 14.5% (based on the QFT-G test). There was no difference between HCWs with and without known exposure to TB. Agreement between the tests was poor (i.e., the kappa value was less than 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed that only the QFT-G test was associated with age (35 years or greater) (adjusted OR, 2.53; p = 0.03). By using the QFT-G test or TST, this study found a similar prevalence of LTBI in HCWs with and without known exposure to TB. This suggests that in intermediate TB burden countries exposure to TB may occur within the hospital and within the community. Compared to the TST, the QFT-G test was correlated better with age, which is a known risk factor for latent TB infection.
    Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 09/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidemiology and impact of hepatitis δ virus (HDV) on hepatic outcomes and virological and immunological responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in northern Taiwan have been reported. However, the epidemiology and impact of HDV infection in HIV-HBV coinfection patients in southern Taiwan remains uncertain. In this cohort study, a total of 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV were identified between January 1, 2009 and May 30, 2012. The seroprevalence of anti-HDV antibodies, HDV genotyping, clinical manifestations and hepatic outcomes were compared between the patients with and without HDV coinfection, and laboratory examinations and hepatic outcomes were recorded. Among the 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV, seven were seropositive for HDV (10.9%). There were no statistically significant differences in risk factors for acquiring HIV infection. During a median observation period of 27.8 months, the adjusted hazard ratio of HDV and HBV genotype (type B vs. non-type B) on hepatitis flare-ups were 62.132 (p = 0.04) and 0.028 (p = 0.01), respectively. All seven patients had genotype II and were HDV viremic. The phylogenetic tree analysis and clinical history evaluation did not identify any clusters of HDV infection. HDV infection resulted in higher rate of hepatitis flare-ups, but it did not have a statistical significance on HIV progression and immunological response to HAART. Whether higher rate of HDV viremia has worse impact on the hepatic outcomes requires further investigation.
    Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 09/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis coinfection is a common phenomenon. A percentage of neurosyphilis cases is asymptomatic in HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis is more difficult because of the alteration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) presentation by the HIV itself. The CSF levels of the degradation products of nitric oxide (NO; e.g., nitrate and nitrite) are reportedly elevated in animals and patients with bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that an elevated CSF nitrite concentration may be present in patients coinfected with HIV and neurosyphilis. This cohort study was conducted from January 2007 to June 2008. Forty patients were enrolled and included seven patients in the control group and 33 HIV-infected patients with or without syphilis. Nitrite levels in the serum and the CSF were measured by using the Griess assay. The CSF nitrite levels were significantly higher in HIV-infected patients with neurosyphilis, compared to the control group or patients with HIV infection only or patients with HIV and syphilis coinfection (p = 0.026). The CSF nitrite levels were correlated with the CSF white blood cell counts (Spearman correlation test, r(2) = 0.324; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between different groups in serum nitrite levels. Marked elevation of CSF nitrite level was observed in HIV-infected patients with neurosyphilis.
    Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 09/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raltegravir is the first integrase inhibitor antiretroviral agent that has been demonstrated to have antiviral efficacy and safety. However, the US Food and Drug Administration has recommended use with caution in patients with risk factors for rhabdomyolysis, based on four case reports of rhabdomyolysis in patients with identifiable risk factors. We present a 32-year-old Asian man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but without other underlying diseases, who developed rapid-onset, raltegravir-associated rhabdomyolysis and hyperlactatemia. Our patient lacked predisposing factors for rhabdomyolysis, and the rapid onset time of 4 days was the shortest reported. Therefore, clinicians should exercise caution when using raltegravir and closely monitor all patients for the symptoms of muscle pain and weakness. This case has been reported to the National Adverse Drug Reactions Reporting System of the Department of Health in Taiwan.
    Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 04/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patient participation has been proven to increase hand hygiene compliance of health care workers. The objective of the study is to better understand patients' attitudes and perceptions toward hand hygiene, and to identify patients with the highest motivation to participate in hand hygiene. DESIGN: A 2-week, cross-sectional survey of hospitalized patients and their family members was conducted using an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire in a large teaching hospital in Taiwan. RESULTS: Of the 859 respondents, 89.8% considered hand hygiene important, and 75.9% would take hand hygiene practices into consideration when they choose a hospital. Most respondents (78.4%) would like more information on hand hygiene, particularly persons who have had experience with health care-associated infection (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-3.89; P < .001). Respondents would be more willing to ask a doctor or nurse to wash his or her hands if they knew that the doctor or nurse would appreciate the reminder (doctor: from 48.9% to 74.6% [P < .001]; nurse: from 50.8% to 76.3% [P < .001]). CONCLUSIONS: Hand hygiene is considered important by most patients and family members and plays an influential role in their choice of a hospital or doctor. Persons with experience with health care-associated infections have the greatest motivation to participate in hand hygiene.
    American journal of infection control 10/2012; · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (NNHCA-IE) is a new category of IE of increasing importance. This study described the clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcome of NNHCA-IE in Taiwan. A retrospective study was conducted of all patients with IE admitted to the Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan over a five-year period from July 2004 to July 2009. The clinical and microbiological features of NNHCA-IE were compared to those of community-acquired and nosocomial IE. Predictors for in-hospital death were determined. Two-hundred episodes of confirmed IE occurred during the study period. These included 148 (74%) community-acquired, 30 (15%) non-nosocomial healthcare-associated, and 22 (11%) nosocomial healthcare-associated IE. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen. Patients with NNHCA-IE compared to community-acquired IE, were older (median age, 67 vs. 44, years, p < 0.001), had more MRSA (43.3% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.001), more comorbidity conditions (median Charlson comorbidity index [interquartile range], 4[2-6] vs. 0[0-1], p < 0.001), a higher in-hospital mortality (50.0% vs. 17.6%, p < 0.001) and were less frequently recognized by clinicians on admission (16.7% vs. 47.7%, p = 0.002). The overall in-hospital mortality rate for all patients with IE was 25%. Shock was the strongest risk factor for in-hospital death (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence interval 2.4-25.2, p < 0.001). NNHCA-IE is underrecognized and carries a high mortality rate. Early recognition is crucial to provide optimal management and improve outcome.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 08/2011; 11:221. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients in ESRD on hemodialysis with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection have 10 to 25 times the risk of reactivation into active disease compared with healthy adults. This study investigates the prevalence of latent TB infection in dialysis patients from a country with an intermediate burden of TB and its associated risk factors using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube test (QGIT) and the tuberculin skin test (TST). This was a prospective, cross-sectional study performed at a medical center in Taiwan on dialysis patients. Each patient underwent QGIT, two-step TST using 2 tuberculin units (TU) of PPD RT-23, a chest x-ray to exclude active TB, and an interview to determine TB risk factors. Ninety-three of 190 eligible patients were enrolled: 35 men and 58 women. 64.8% were vaccinated with the Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Overall, 34.4% were positive by QGIT and 10.8% were indeterminate. Using a 10-mm TST cutoff, 53.9% were positive. There was poor correlation between TST and QGIT at any TST cutoff criteria. There was a significant increasing trend of QGIT positivity with age in those younger than 70 years, and, conversely, a decreasing trend of TST reactivity with age. Significant risk factors for QGIT positivity included age and past TB disease. This study shows a high prevalence of latent TB infection in dialysis patients in a country with an intermediate burden of TB. QGIT in dialysis patients correlated better than TST with the risk of TB infection and past TB disease.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2010; 5(8):1451-7. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 11/2009; 30(10):1026-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor