[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) are used to enhance radiotherapy (RT) effect for head and neck (HN) cancers. However, the effect of local RT on systemic chemotherapeutics remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the influence of HN irradiation on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of 5-FU and CDDP in rats as experimental model.
The radiation dose distributions of HN cancer patients were determined for the low dose areas, which are generously deposited around the target volume. Two Gy and 0.5 Gy RT were selected. Single-fraction radiation was delivered to the HN of Sprague--Dawley rats. 5-FU at 100 mg/kg or CDDP at 5 mg/kg was intravenously infused 24 hours after radiation.
Radiation at 2 Gy reduced the area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve (AUC) of 5-FU and CDDP by 16% and 29% compared to non-irradiated controls, respectively. This was accompanied by incremental total plasma clearance values. Intriguingly, low dose radiation at 0.5 Gy resulted in a similar pharmacokinetic profile, with a 17% and 33% reduction in the AUC of 5-FU and CDDP, respectively. The changes in AUC of bile, which increases with RT, were opposite to AUC of plasma for both drugs.
The local HN RT could modulate systemic PK of 5-FU and CDDP in rats. This unexpected RT-PK phenomena may provide a reference for adjustment of drug administration and is worthy of further investigation.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01755585 and NCT01609114.
Journal of Translational Medicine 09/2013; 11(1):231. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An anthropomorphic phantom was used to investigate a treatment technique and analyze the dose distributions for helical irradiation of the total skin (HITS) by helical tomotherapy (HT). Hypothetical bolus of thicknesses of 0, 10, and 15 mm was added around the phantom body to account for the dose homogeneity and setup uncertainty. A central core structure was assigned as a "complete block" to force the dose tangential delivery. HITS technique with prescribed dose (D p ) of 36 Gy in 36 fractions was generated. The radiochromic EBT2 films were used for the dose measurements. The target region with 95.0% of the D p received by more than 95% of the PTV was obtained. The calculated mean doses for the organs at risk (OARs) were 4.69, 3.10, 3.20, and 2.94 Gy for the lung, heart, liver, and kidneys, respectively. The measurement doses on a phantom surface for a plan with 10 mm hypothetical bolus and bolus thicknesses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 mm are 89.5%, 111.4%, 116.9%, and 117.7% of D p , respectively. HITS can provide an accurate and uniform treatment dose in the skin with limited doses to OARs and is safe to replace a total skin electron beam regimen.
BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:108794.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the experience and to evaluate the results of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) via helical tomotherapy (HT), for the treatment of brachytherapy-unsuitable cervical cancer.
Between September 1, 2008 to January 31, 2012, nine cervical cancer patients unsuitable for brachytherapy were enrolled. All of the patients received definitive whole pelvic radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, followed by SBRT via HT.
The actuarial locoregional control rate at 3 years was 78%. The mean biological equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions of the tumor, rectum, bladder, and intestines was 76.0 ± 7.3, 73.8 ± 13.2, 70.5 ± 10.0, and 43.1 ± 7.1, respectively. Only two had residual tumors after treatment, and the others were tumor-free. Two patients experienced grade 3 acute toxicity: one had diarrhea; and another experienced thrombocytopenia. There were no grade 3 or 4 subacute toxicities. Three patients suffered from manageable rectal bleeding in months 11, 14, and 25, respectively. One stage I VA patient experienced fistula formation in month 3.
SBRT via HT provides the possibility for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients who are unsuitable for brachytherapy. Long-term follow up and enrollment of more such patients to receive SBRT via the HT technique are warranted.
OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2013; 6:59-66. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 36-year-old woman was diagnosed with a therapy-refractory cutaneous CD4+ T-cell lymphoma, T3N0M0B0, and stage IIB. Helical irradiation of the total skin (HITS) and dose painting techniques, with 30 Gy in 40 fractions interrupted at 20 fractions with one week resting, 4 times per week were prescribed. The diving suit was dressed whole body to increase the superficial dose and using central core complete block (CCCB) technique for reducing the internal organ dose. The mean doses of critical organs of head, chest, and abdomen were 2.1 to 29.9 Gy, 2.9 to 8.1 Gy, and 3.6 to 15.7 Gy, respectively. The mean dose of lesions was 84.0 cGy. The dosage of left side pretreated area was decreased 57%. The tumor regressed progressively without further noduloplaques. During the HITS procedure, most toxicity was grade I except leukocytopenia with grade 3. No epitheliolysis, phlyctenules, tumor lysis syndrome, fever, vomiting, dyspnea, edema of the extremities, or diarrhea occurred during the treatment. HITS with dose painting techniques provides precise dosage delivery with impressive results, sparing critical organs, and offering limited transient and chronic sequelae for previously locally irradiated, therapy-refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:717589.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the outcomes of melphalan 200 mg/m(2) (HDM200) and 8 Gy total marrow irradiation (TMI) delivered by helical tomotherapy plus melphalan 140 mg/m(2) (HDM140 + TMI 8 Gy) in newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) Asian patients. Between 2007 and 2010, nine consecutive myeloma patients who were scheduled to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were studied. The patients received three cycles of vincristine-adriamycin-dexamethasone (VAD) regimen as induction chemotherapy, and if they had a partial response, peripheral blood stem cells were collected by dexamethasone-etoposide-cyclophosphamide-cisplatin (DECP). In arm A, six patients received the HDM200. In arm B, three patients received HDM140 + TMI 8 Gy. In arm B, the neutropenic duration was slightly longer than in arm A (P = 0.048). However, hematologic recovery (except for neutrophils), transfusion requirement, median duration of hospitalization, and the dose of G-CSF were similar in both arms. The median duration of overall survival and event-free survival was similar in the two arms (P = 0.387). As a conditioning regiment, HDM140 + TMI 8 Gy provide another chance for MM Asian patients who were not feasible for HDM200.
BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:321762.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy for endometrial cancer.
Between November 1, 2006 and November 31, 2010, 31 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer were enrolled. All enrolled patients received total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant whole pelvic IMRT or helical tomotherapy.
The actuarial 3-year overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control, and distant metastasis-free rates for the IMRT and helical tomotherapy groups were 87.5% versus 100%, 91.7% versus 51.7%, 91.7% versus 83.3%, and 91.7% versus 51.7%, respectively. The conformal index and uniformity index for IMRT versus helical tomotherapy was 1.25 versus 1.17 (P = 0.04) and 1.08 versus 1.05 (P < 0.01), respectively. Two of 31 patients with cervical stump failure were noted, one in the IMRT group and the other in the helical tomotherapy group. No acute or late grade 3 or 4 toxicities were noted, including proctitis, or genitourinary or gastrointestinal disturbances.
Helical tomotherapy is as effective as IMRT and has better uniformity and conformal indices, and critical organ-sparing properties. Prospective clinical trials are needed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of IMRT versus helical tomotherapy.
OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2012; 5:245-53. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how to perform and define appropriate action levels for the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery quality assurance (DQA) for both linear accelerator (linac) and helical tomotherapy (HT) plans using a 2D array diode detector. MapCHECK (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL, USA) was used to perform the DQA measurements of patient plans at various sites: brain, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, spine, bone and others. The measured and planned doses were compared using gamma analysis with a total dose discrepancy of 3% or a gradient difference of 3 mm criteria. DQAs for 507 HT and 380 linac-based IMRT plans were performed, and the mean diode percentage passing rates for 3%/3 mm criteria were 93.8% and 95.1% respectively. For HT delivery, 4.6% and 9.5% of the plans had the passing rates below 80% and 85%, while for linac-based IMRT, 7.4% of the plans had the passing rates lower than 90%. Applying confidence limit with multiplier of 1, action levels for passing rates of 87% and 90% are recommended for HT and IMRT plans respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: To compare the differences in dose-volume data among coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), noncoplanar IMRT, and helical tomotherapy (HT) among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the differences in dose-volume data among coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), noncoplanar IMRT, and helical tomotherapy (HT) among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT).
Nine patients with unresectable HCC and PVT underwent step and shoot coplanar IMRT with intent to deliver 46-54 Gy to the tumor and portal vein. The volume of liver received 30Gy was set to keep less than 30% of whole normal liver (V30<30%). The mean dose to at least one side of kidney was kept below 23 Gy, and 50 Gy as for stomach. The maximum dose was kept below 47 Gy for spinal cord. Several parameters including mean hepatic dose, percent volume of normal liver with radiation dose at X Gy (Vx), uniformity index, conformal index, and doses to organs at risk were evaluated from the dose-volume histogram.
HT provided better uniformity for the planning-target volume dose coverage than both IMRT techniques. The noncoplanar IMRT technique reduces the V10 to normal liver with a statistically significant level as compared to HT. The constraints for the liver in the V30 for coplanar IMRT vs. noncoplanar IMRT vs. HT could be reconsidered as 21% vs. 17% vs. 17%, respectively. When delivering 50 Gy and 60-66 Gy to the tumor bed, the constraints of mean dose to the normal liver could be less than 20 Gy and 25 Gy, respectively.
Noncoplanar IMRT and HT are potential techniques of radiation therapy for HCC patients with PVT. Constraints for the liver in IMRT and HT could be stricter than for 3DCRT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the experience with and evaluate the treatment plan for helical tomotherapy for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer.
Between November 1, 2006 and January 31, 2009, 10 histologically confirmed oropharyngeal cancer patients were enrolled. All patients received definitive concurrent chemoradiation with helical tomotherapy. The prescription dose to the gross tumor planning target volume, the high-risk subclinical area, and the low-risk subclinical area was 70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 56 Gy, respectively. During radiotherapy, all patients were treated with cisplatin, 30 mg/m(2), plus 5-fluorouracil (425 mg/m(2))/leucovorin (30 mg/m(2)) intravenously weekly. Toxicity of treatment was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Several parameters, including maximal or median dose to critical organs, uniformity index, and conformal index, were evaluated from dose-volume histograms.
The mean survival was 18 months (range, 7-22 months). The actuarial overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control, and distant metastasis-free rates at 18 months were 67%, 70%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The average for uniformity index and conformal index was 1.05 and 1.26, respectively. The mean of median dose for right side and left side parotid glands was 23.5 and 23.9 Gy, respectively. No Grade 3 toxicity for dermatitis and body weight loss and only one instance of Grade 3 mucositis were noted.
Helical tomotherapy achieved encouraging clinical outcomes in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment toxicity was acceptable, even in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy. Long-term follow-up is needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 10/2009; 77(3):715-21. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three Asian patients with plasma cell myeloma stage IIIa with IgG predominant were selected for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT). Total marrow irradiation (TMI) tomotherapy planned with melphalan 140 mg/m2 as a preconditioning regimen of HSCT. Two image sets of computed tomography (CT) were scanned with 2.5 mm and 5 mm for the upper and lower part of the plan, respectively. The junction was determined and marked at 15 cm above knee on both thighs for upper and lower part of the plan. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the entire skeletal system. The planning target volume (PTV) was generated with with 0.8 cm for CTV(extremities) and with 0.5 cm margin for all other bones of CTV. A total dose of 800 cGy (200 cGy/fraction) was delivered to the PTV. Update to presentation, all of three patients post transplant without evidence of active disease were noted. During TMI treatment, one with grade 1 vomiting, two with grade 1 nausea, one with grade 1 mucositis, and three with grade 1 anorexia were noted. Toxicity of treatment was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). The average for upper part versus lower part of PTV (Bone marrow) of CI and H-index were 1.5 and 1.4 versus 1.2 and 1.2, respectively. The dose reduction of TMI tomotherapy to various OARs of head, chest, and abdomen relative to TBI varied from 31% to 74%, 21% to 51%, and 46% to 63%, respectively. The maximum average value of registration for upper torso versus lower extremities in different translation directions were 5.1 mm versus 4.1 mm for pretreatment and 1.5 mm versus 0.7 mm for post-treatment, respectively. The average treatment time for the upper versus lower part in beam-on time, setup time, and MVCT registration time took roughly 49.9, 23.3, and 11.7 min versus 11.5, 10.0, and 7.3 min, respectively. The margin of PTV could be less than 1 cm under good fixation and close position confirmation with MVCT. Antiemetics should be prescribed in the whole course of TMI for emesis prevention. TMI technique replaced TBI technique with 8 Gy as conditioning regiment for multiple myeloma could be acceptable for the Asian and the outcomes were feasible for the Asian.
Technology in cancer research & treatment 03/2009; 8(1):29-38. · 1.94 Impact Factor