ABSTRACT: Among female-specific cancers worldwide, endometrial cancer is the third most common after breast cancer and cervical cancer. In addition, it is the most common gynecological cancer in the USA and Europe. The incidence of this disease appears to be increasing. The cause of this increase is multifactorial, but a few possible factors involved are increasing obesity, an aging population leading to more postmenopausal women and greater tamoxifen use. Surgery is generally the primary treatment of this disease and postoperative radiation therapy in some patients with high or intermediate risk may prevent locoregional recurrences. Adjuvant chemotherapy improves progression-free survival in advanced or recurrent cancer. However, overall survival in patients with advanced disease is poor. Hence, better therapy is needed and targeted molecular therapies are emerging as possible treatment candidates. These include molecules that target VEGF, mTOR, tyrosine kinases, human EGF receptors and FGF receptors. Therapies targeting specific molecular features should be evaluated in future strategies in the treatment of endometrial cancer.
Women s Health 03/2013; 9(2):189-99.
ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the major cancer burden in developing countries. Bone is the third most common site of distant metastasis after the lungs and liver. Therefore, the aims of this study were to find the incidence and clinical characteristics of bone metastasis in our hospital.
Fifty-one cervical cancer patients with bone metastasis during the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were recruited. All patients' medical records were reviewed and analyzed.
Among 4620 cervical cancer patients, there were 51 patients (1.1%) who had bone metastases. Ten patients' medical records were not found; thus, 41 patients were available for evaluation. The median age of the patients was 49 years. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB was the most common stage (43.9%). Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma (80.48%) and received radiation therapy alone as their primary treatment (58.53%). The most common presenting symptom was pain (78.04%). Most of the patients had multiple bone lesions and extrapelvic bone metastases. The lumbar spine was the most common site (36.36%). Sixteen patients (39.02%) were treated by palliative radiation therapy. The median overall survival was 23 months.
Bone metastases could be found at all stages. Common sites were the bone beyond the radiation field of their primary treatment. It was found at a median of 16 months after cervical cancer diagnosis. Currently, there are many varieties of treatment that result only in palliation. This group of patients has a poor prognosis.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 04/2010; 20(3):373-8. · 1.65 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol in overcoming an unsatisfactory colposcopy in the patients who had abnormal cervical cytology and to evaluate side effects of vaginal misoprostol.
Sixty patients with an unsatisfactory colposcopy during the period of September 2007-November 2008 were recruited and randomly allocated to receive either two tablets of 200 microg misoprostol (400 microg) or two tablets of similar-looking placebo vaginally. Colposcopic re-examination was performed approximately 6 h later. The results and side effects before and 2 weeks after the colposcopic re-examination were recorded.
Six out of 30 patients in the misoprostol group (20.0%) had a satisfactory colposcopic re-examination compared with 2 out of 27 patients (7.4%) in the placebo group without statistically significant difference (P = 0.172). Three patients in the placebo group dropped out due to not present at the appointment time. Six out of 30 patients (20.0%) and 1 out of 30 patients (3.3%) in the misoprostol group had side effects before and 2 weeks after the colposcopic re-examination orderly. Twenty-seven patients in the placebo group did not have any side effects before and 2 weeks after the colposcopic re-examination. All side effects occurred were minimal and well tolerated.
Four hundred micrograms of vaginal misoprostol were not proved to be effective in converting an unsatisfactory to a satisfactory colposcopy.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2009; 40(3):203-7. · 1.78 Impact Factor