[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agkisacucetin extracted from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus has been demonstrated to be a promising antithrombotic drug candidate in clinical studies due to its function as a novel platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib inhibitor. Agkisacucetin is a heterodimeric protein composed of α- and β-subunits with seven disulphide bonds. Both subunits form inactive homodimeric products, which cause difficulties for recombinant production. In this study, Agkisacucetin α- and β-subunits were inserted sequentially into the chromosome of Pichia pastoris at the mutant histidinol dehydrogenase gene and ribosomal DNA repeat sites, respectively. By optimizing the gene copies and productivity of each subunit by drug screening, we successfully obtained a recombinant strain with balanced expression of the two subunits. Using this strain, a yield greater than 100 mg/L recombinant Agkisacucetin in fed-batch fermentation was reached. The recombinant Agkisacucetin possessed extremely similar binding affinity to recombinant GPIb and human platelets in in vitro assays, and its ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation activity ex vivo was identical to that of the extracted native Agkisacucetin, demonstrating that the yeast-derived Agkisacucetin could be an effective alternative to native Agkisacucetin. Moreover, this study provides an effective strategy for balancing the expression and production of heterodimeric proteins in P. pastoris.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) has become a popular `cell factory¿ for producing heterologous proteins, but production widely varies among proteins. Cultivation temperature is frequently reported to significantly affect protein production; however, the underlying mechanisms of this effect remain unclear.ResultsA P. pastoris strain expressing recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) under the control of the AOX1 promoter was used as the model in this study. This system shows high-yield rhIL-10 production with prolonged methanol-induction times when cultured at 20°C but low-yield rhIL-10 production and higher cell death rates when cultured at 30°C. Further investigation showed that G3-pro-rhIL10, an immature form of rhIL-10 that contains the glycosylation-modified signal peptide, remained in the ER for a prolonged period at 30°C. The retention resulted in higher ER stress levels that were accompanied by increased ROS production, Ca2+ leakage, ER-containing autophagosomes, shortened cortical ER length and compromised induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In contrast, G3-pro-rhIL10 was quickly processed and eliminated from the ER at 20°C, resulting in a lower level of ER stress and improved rhIL-10 production.Conclusions
High-temperature cultivation of an rhIL-10 expression strain leads to prolonged retention of immature G3-pro-rhIL10 in ER, causing higher ER stress levels and thus greater yeast cell death rates and lower production of rhIL-10.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E2F1 is the gatekeeper of the cell cycle controlling an analogous balance between proliferation and cell death. E2F1 expression is elevated in advanced prostate cancer. However, it is still unclear that the roles and mechanisms of E2F1 on prostate cancers.
Targeted knockdown by interferon RNA was applied on two prostate cancer and Hela cell lines to examine the inverse correlation expression of E2F1 and ICAM-1. ICAM-1 promoter reporter and ChIP assays were used for analysis of the molecular basis of transcriptional regulation of E2F1 on ICAM-1. Co-IP assays were employed for testing the protein interaction between E2F1 and NF-kappaB. Tumor xenograft mice model with E2F1 and ICAM-1-knockdown prostate cancer cells were used to investigate the effects of E2F1 and ICAM-1 on antitumor immunity.
E2F1 knockdown by a specific short hairpin RNA increased gene transcription and protein expression of ICAM-1. By using wild type and a series of mutant ICAM-1 promoter luciferase constructs, the NF-kappaB binding sites were found to be important for E2F1 regulation of ICAM-1 promoter. Targeted knockdown of E2F1 did not affect expression and phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and IkappaBalpha, but facilitated NF-kappaB binding to the ICAM-1 promoter, subsequently induced ICAM-1 transcription and production in prostate carcinoma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of E2F1 inhibited tumor growth of prostate cancer in vivo through increasing the susceptibility of tumor cells to ICAM-1-mediated anti-tumor immunity including enhancement of monocyte adhesion, leucocytes infiltration, as well as cytotoxicity against tumor cells.
E2F1 knockdown inhibited prostate tumor growth in vitro and in vivo through sensitizing tumor cells to ICAM-1 mediated anti-immunity by NF-kappaB modulation, highlighting the potential of E2F1 as a therapeutic target.
Molecular Cancer 04/2014; 13(1):84. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-13-84 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD83 is a highly glycosylated type I transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD83 is upregulated during dendritic cell (DC) maturation, which is critical for the initiation of adaptive immune responses. The soluble isoform of CD83 (sCD83) is encoded by alternative splicing from full-length CD83 mRNA and inhibits DC maturation, which suggests that sCD83 acts as a potential immune suppressor. In this study, we developed a sound strategy to express functional sCD83 from Pichia pastoris in extremely high-density fermentation. Purified sCD83 was expressed as a monomer at a yield of more than 200 mg/L and contained N-linked glycosylation sites that were characterized by PNGase F digestion. In vitro tests indicated that recombinant sCD83 bound to its putative counterpart on monocytes and specifically blocked the binding of anti-CD83 antibodies to cell surface CD83 on DCs. Moreover, sCD83 from yeast significantly suppressed ConA-stimulated PBMC proliferation. Therefore, sCD83 that was expressed from the P. pastoris was functionally active and may be used for in vivo and in vitro studies as well as future clinical applications.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89264. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089264 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-8 produced by prostate cancer cells may be responsible for the androgen-independent growth of advanced prostate cancers. Accumulating evidence from microarray analyses and animal genetic models highlights the central involvement of the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR-1) in prostate carcinoma progression. It is unknown, however, whether knockdown of EGR-1 inhibits IL-8 production and IL-8-mediated tumor metastasis. Here we show that EGR-1 knockdown by a specific shRNA-Egr1 inhibited gene transcription and production of IL-8 by the human prostate cancer cell line DU145. Conversely, enforced expression of EGR-1 in EGR-1-lacking PC3 prostate cancer cells markedly enhanced IL-8 transcription and secretion. By using wild type and a series of mutant IL-8 promoter luciferase constructs, we found that the NF-kappaB binding site is important for EGR-1 regulation of IL-8. Furthermore, silencing EGR-1 suppressed a synergistically functional interaction between EGR-1 and NF-kappaB. Consequently, knockdown of EGR-1 inhibited IL-8-mediated tumor colony formation and invasion. Thus, targeted knockdown of EGR-1 could be an effective therapeutic approach against prostate cancer.