Vikram G Shakkottai

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (25)160.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ocular motor abnormalities reflect the varied neuropathology of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and may serve to clinically distinguish the different SCAs. We analyzed the various eye movement abnormalities detected prospectively at the baseline visit during a large multicenter natural history study of SCAs 1, 2, 3, and 6.
    Journal of neuro-ophthalmology: the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society 09/2014; · 1.09 Impact Factor
  • Ravi Chopra, Vikram G Shakkottai
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    ABSTRACT: Polyglutamine diseases are a class of neurodegenerative diseases that share an expansion of a glutamine-encoding CAG tract in the respective disease genes as a central hallmark. In all of these diseases there is progressive degeneration in a select subset of neurons, and the mechanisms behind this degeneration remain unclear. Emerging evidence from animal models of disease has identified abnormalities in synaptic signaling and intrinsic excitability in affected neurons, which coincide with the onset of symptoms and precede apparent neuropathology. The appearance of these early changes suggests that altered neuronal activity might be an important component of network dysfunction and that these alterations in network physiology could contribute to symptoms of disease. Here we review abnormalities in neuronal function that have been identified in both animal models and patients, and highlight ways in which these changes in neuronal activity may contribute to disease symptoms. We then review the literature supporting an emerging role for abnormalities in neuronal activity as a driver of neurodegeneration. Finally, we identify common themes that emerge from studies of neuronal dysfunction in polyglutamine disease.
    Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 07/2014; · 5.38 Impact Factor
  • Vikram G Shakkottai
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    ABSTRACT: Dystonia is a neurologic disorder characterized by sustained involuntary muscle contractions. Lesions responsible for unilateral secondary dystonia are confined to the putamen, caudate, globus pallidus, and thalamus. Dysfunction of these structures is suspected to play a role in both primary and secondary dystonia. Recent evidence has suggested that the cerebellum may play a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. The role of the cerebellum in ataxia, a disorder of motor incoordination is well established. How may the cerebellum contribute to two apparently very different movement disorders? This review will discuss the idea of whether in some cases, ataxia and dystonia lie in the same clinical spectrum and whether graded perturbations in cerebellar function may explain a similar causative role for the cerebellum in these two different motor disorders. The review also proposes a model for cerebellar dystonia based on the available animal models of this disorder.
    The Cerebellum 05/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that dystonia, a movement disorder characterized by sustained involuntary muscle contractions, can be associated with cerebellar abnormalities. The basis for how functional changes in the cerebellum can cause dystonia is poorly understood. Here we identify alterations in physiology in Atcay(ji-hes) mice which in addition to ataxia, have an abnormal gait with hind limb extension and toe walking, reminiscent of human dystonic gait. No morphological abnormalities in the brain accompany the dystonia, but partial cerebellectomy causes resolution of the stiff-legged gait, suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction contributes to the dystonic gait of Atcay(ji-hes) mice. Recordings from Purkinje and deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN) neurons in acute brain slices were used to determine the physiological correlates of dystonia in the Atcay(ji-hes) mice. Approximately 50% of cerebellar Purkinje neurons fail to display the normal repetitive firing characteristic of these cells. In addition, DCN neurons exhibit increased intrinsic firing frequencies with a subset of neurons displaying bursts of action potentials. This increased intrinsic excitability of DCN neurons is accompanied by a reduction in after-hyperpolarization currents mediated by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels. An activator of SK channels reduces DCN neuron firing frequency in acute cerebellar slices and improves the dystonic gait of Atcay(ji-hes) mice. These results suggest that a combination of reduced Purkinje neuron activity and increased DCN intrinsic excitability can result in a combination of ataxia and a dystonia-like gait in mice.
    Neurobiology of Disease 04/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
  • Ravi Chopra, Vikram G Shakkottai
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    ABSTRACT: The cerebellum is an important structure for accurate control and timing of movement, and Purkinje neurons in the cerebellar cortex are key players in cerebellar motor control. Cerebellar dysfunction can result in ataxia, a disorder characterized by postural instability, gait disturbances and motor incoordination. Cerebellar ataxia is a symptom of a number of conditions, and the emerging evidence that Purkinje neuron dysfunction, in particular, abnormal Purkinje neuron repetitive firing, is a major driver of motor dysfunction in a subset of dominantly inherited ataxias is dicussed. Abnormalities in Purkinje neuron excitability that are observed in mouse models of each of these disorders, and where appropriate describe studies linking particular ion channels to aberrant excitability are also discussed. Common mechanisms of dysfunction and speculate about potential therapeutic targets, suggesting that Purkinje neuron firing abnormalities are a novel target for improving motor dysfunction in patients with some forms of dominantly inherited ataxia are proposed.
    Future Neurology 03/2014; 9(2):187-196.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that dystonia, a movement disorder characterized by sustained involuntary muscle contractions, can be associated with cerebellar abnormalities. The basis for how functional changes in the cerebellum can cause dystonia is poorly understood. Here we identify alterations in physiology in Atcayji-hes mice which in addition to ataxia, have an abnormal gait with hind limb extension and toe walking, reminiscent of human dystonic gait. No morphological abnormalities in the brain accompany the dystonia, but partial cerebellectomy causes resolution of the stiff-legged gait, suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction contributes to the dystonic gait of Atcayji-hes mice. Recordings from Purkinje and deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN) neurons in acute brain slices were used to determine the physiological correlates of dystonia in the Atcayji-hes mice. Approximately 50% of cerebellar Purkinje neurons fail to display the normal repetitive firing characteristic of these cells. In addition, DCN neurons exhibit increased intrinsic firing frequencies with a subset of neurons displaying bursts of action potentials. This increased intrinsic excitability of DCN neurons is accompanied by a reduction in after-hyperpolarization currents mediated by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels. An activator of SK channels reduces DCN neuron firing frequency in acute cerebellar slices and improves the dystonic gait of Atcayji-hes mice. These results suggest that a combination of reduced Purkinje neuron activity and increased DCN intrinsic excitability can result in a combination of ataxia and a dystonia-like gait in mice.
    Neurobiology of Disease 01/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are rare diseases. SCA1, 2, 3 and 6 are the four most common SCAs, all caused by expanded polyglutamine-coding CAG repeats. Their pathomechanisms are becoming increasingly clear and well-designed clinical trials will be needed. To characterize the clinical manifestations of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 1, 2, 3 and 6 and their natural histories in the United States (US), we conducted a prospective multicenter study utilized a protocol identical to the European consortium study, using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) score as the primary outcome, with follow-ups every 6 months up to 2 years. We enrolled 345 patients (60 SCA1, 75 SCA2, 138 SCA3 and 72 SCA6) at 12 US centers. SCA6 patients had a significantly later onset, and SCA2 patients showed greater upper-body ataxia than patients with the remaining SCAs. The annual increase of SARA score was greater in SCA1 patients (mean +/- SE: 1.61 +/- 0.41) than in SCA2 (0.71 +/- 0.31), SCA3 (0.65 +/- 0.24) and SCA6 (0.87 +/- 0.28) patients (p = 0.049). The functional stage also worsened faster in SCA1 than in SCA2, 3 and 6 (p = 0.002). The proportions of different SCA patients in US differ from those in the European consortium study, but as in the European patients, SCA1 progress faster than those with SCA2, 3 and 6. Later onset in SCA6 and greater upper body ataxia in SCA2 were noted. We conclude that progression rates of these SCAs were comparable between US and Europe cohorts, suggesting the feasibility of international collaborative clinical studies.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 11/2013; 8(1):177. · 4.32 Impact Factor
  • Vikram G Shakkottai, Brent L Fogel
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    ABSTRACT: The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias are a diverse and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by degeneration and dysfunction of the cerebellum and its associated pathways. Clinical and diagnostic evaluation can be challenging because of phenotypic overlap among causes, and a stratified and systematic approach is essential. Recent advances include the identification of additional genes causing dominant genetic ataxia, a better understanding of cellular pathogenesis in several disorders, the generation of new disease models that may stimulate development of new therapies, and the use of new DNA sequencing technologies, including whole-exome sequencing, to improve diagnosis.
    Neurologic Clinics 11/2013; 31(4):987-1007. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a dominantly inherited ataxia caused by a polyglutamine-coding expansion in the ATXN3 gene. Suppressing expression of the toxic gene product represents a promising approach to therapy for MJD and other polyglutamine diseases. We performed an extended therapeutic trial of RNA interference (RNAi) targeting ATXN3 in a mouse model expressing the full human disease gene and recapitulating key disease features. Adeno-associated virus encoding a microRNA-like molecule, miRATXN3, was delivered bilaterally into the cerebellum of 6-8 week old MJD mice, which were then followed to end-stage disease to assess the safety and efficacy of anti-ATXN3 RNAi. Despite effective, lifelong suppression of ATXN3 in the cerebellum and the apparent safety of miRATXN3, motor impairment was not ameliorated in treated MJD mice and survival was not prolonged. These results with an otherwise effective RNAi agent suggest that targeting a large extent of the cerebellum alone may not be sufficient for effective human therapy. Artificial miRNAs or other nucleotide-based suppression strategies targeting ATXN3 more widely in the brain should be considered in future preclinical tests.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.144.
    Molecular Therapy 06/2013; · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the causative gene in spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 22, an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia mapped to chromosome 1p21-q23. We previously characterized a large Chinese family with progressive ataxia designated SCA22, which overlaps with the locus of SCA19. The disease locus in a French family and an Ashkenazi Jewish American family was also mapped to this region. Members from all 3 families were enrolled. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify candidate mutations, which were narrowed by linkage analysis and confirmed by Sanger sequencing and cosegregation analyses. Mutational analyses were also performed in 105 Chinese and 55 Japanese families with cerebellar ataxia. Mutant gene products were examined in a heterologous expression system to address the changes in protein localization and electrophysiological functions. We identified heterozygous mutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv4.3-encoding gene KCND3: an in-frame 3-nucleotide deletion c.679_681delTTC p.F227del in both the Chinese and French pedigrees, and a missense mutation c.1034G>T p.G345V in the Ashkenazi Jewish family. Direct sequencing of KCND3 further identified 3 mutations, c.1034G>T p.G345V, c.1013T>C p.V338E, and c.1130C>T p.T377M, in 3 Japanese kindreds. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that the mutant p.F227del Kv4.3 subunits were retained in the cytoplasm, consistent with the lack of A-type K(+) channel conductance in whole cell patch-clamp recordings. Our data identify the cause of SCA19/22 in patients of diverse ethnic origins as mutations in KCND3. These findings further emphasize the important role of ion channels as key regulators of neuronal excitability in the pathogenesis of cerebellar degeneration. ANN NEUROL 2012;72:859-869.
    Annals of Neurology 12/2012; 72(6):859-69. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective:To identify the causative gene in spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 22, an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia mapped to chromosome 1p21‐q23. Methods:We previously characterized a large Chinese family with progressive ataxia designated SCA22, which overlaps with the locus of SCA19. The disease locus in a French family and an Ashkenazi Jewish American family was also mapped to this region. Members from all 3 families were enrolled. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify candidate mutations, which were narrowed by linkage analysis and confirmed by Sanger sequencing and cosegregation analyses. Mutational analyses were also performed in 105 Chinese and 55 Japanese families with cerebellar ataxia. Mutant gene products were examined in a heterologous expression system to address the changes in protein localization and electrophysiological functions. Results:We identified heterozygous mutations in the voltage‐gated potassium channel Kv4.3‐encoding gene KCND3: an in‐frame 3‐nucleotide deletion c.679_681delTTC p.F227del in both the Chinese and French pedigrees, and a missense mutation c.1034G>T p.G345V in the Ashkenazi Jewish family. Direct sequencing of KCND3 further identified 3 mutations, c.1034G>T p.G345V, c.1013T>C p.V338E, and c.1130C>T p.T377M, in 3 Japanese kindreds. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that the mutant p.F227del Kv4.3 subunits were retained in the cytoplasm, consistent with the lack of A‐type K+ channel conductance in whole cell patch‐clamp recordings. Interpretation:Our data identify the cause of SCA19/22 in patients of diverse ethnic origins as mutations in KCND3. These findings further emphasize the important role of ion channels as key regulators of neuronal excitability in the pathogenesis of cerebellar degeneration. ANN NEUROL 2012;72:859–869.
    Annals of Neurology 01/2012; 72(6). · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between cerebellar dysfunction, motor symptoms, and neuronal loss in the inherited ataxias, including the polyglutamine disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that before neurodegeneration, Purkinje neurons in a mouse model of SCA3 exhibit increased intrinsic excitability resulting in depolarization block and the loss of the ability to sustain spontaneous repetitive firing. These alterations in intrinsic firing are associated with increased inactivation of voltage-activated potassium currents. Administration of an activator of calcium-activated potassium channels, SKA-31, partially corrects abnormal Purkinje cell firing and improves motor function in SCA3 mice. Finally, expression of the disease protein, ataxin-3, in transfected cells increases the inactivation of Kv3.1 channels and shifts the activation of Kv1.2 channels to more depolarized potentials. Our results suggest that in SCA3, early Purkinje neuron dysfunction is associated with altered physiology of voltage-activated potassium channels. We further suggest that the observed changes in Purkinje neuron physiology contribute to disease pathogenesis, underlie at least some motor symptoms, and represent a promising therapeutic target in SCA3.
    Journal of Neuroscience 09/2011; 31(36):13002-14. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    Ting Yu, Vikram G Shakkottai, Chan Chung, Andrew P Lieberman
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    ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. Loss of function mutations in either gene disrupt intracellular lipid trafficking and lead to a clinically heterogeneous phenotype that invariably includes neurological dysfunction and early death. The mechanism by which impaired lipid transport leads to neurodegeneration is poorly understood. Here we used mice with a conditional null allele to establish the timing and cell type that underlie neurodegeneration due to Npc1 deficiency. We show that global deletion of Npc1 in adult mice leads to progressive weight loss, impaired motor function and early death in a time course similar to that resulting from germline deletion. These phenotypes are associated with the occurrence of characteristic neuropathology including patterned Purkinje cell loss, axonal spheroids and reactive gliosis, demonstrating that there is not a significant developmental component to NPC neurodegeneration. Furthermore, we show that these same changes occur when Npc1 is specifically deleted only in neurons, establishing that neuronal deficiency is sufficient to mediate central nervous system (CNS) disease. In contrast, astrocyte-specific deletion does not impact behavioral phenotypes, CNS histopathology or synaptic function. We conclude that defects arising in neurons, but not in astrocytes, are the determining factor in the development of NPC neuropathology.
    Human Molecular Genetics 08/2011; 20(22):4440-51. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathways regulating neuronal vulnerability are poorly understood, yet are central to identifying therapeutic targets for degenerative neurological diseases. Here, we characterize mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by impaired cholesterol trafficking. To date, the relative contributions of neuronal and glial defects to neuron loss are poorly defined. Using gene targeting, we generate Npc1 conditional null mutant mice. Deletion of Npc1 in mature cerebellar Purkinje cells leads to an age-dependent impairment in motor tasks, including rotarod and balance beam performance. Surprisingly, these mice did not show the early death or weight loss that are characteristic of global Npc1 null mice, suggesting that Purkinje cell degeneration does not underlie these phenotypes. Histological examination revealed the progressive loss of Purkinje cells in an anterior-to-posterior gradient. This cell autonomous neurodegeneration occurs in a spatiotemporal pattern similar to that of global knockout mice. A subpopulation of Purkinje cells in the posterior cerebellum exhibits marked resistance to cell death despite Npc1 deletion. To explore this selective response, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of vulnerable and susceptible Purkinje cell subpopulations. Unexpectedly, Purkinje cells in both subpopulations displayed no electrophysiological abnormalities prior to degeneration. Our data establish that Npc1 deficiency leads to cell autonomous, selective neurodegeneration and suggest that the ataxic symptoms of NPC disease arise from Purkinje cell death rather than cellular dysfunction.
    Human Molecular Genetics 12/2009; 19(5):837-47. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    Vikram G Shakkottai, Henry L Paulson
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    ABSTRACT: The ataxias constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases in which cerebellar dysfunction typically underlies the major neurologic manifestations. It is increasingly clear that ataxia can result directly from mutations in ion channels or from perturbations in ion channel physiology in the absence of a primary channel defect. Neuronal dysfunction stemming from perturbed channel activity likely explains some motor deficits in episodic and degenerative ataxias. Understanding these pathophysiologic changes may reveal novel therapeutic targets for symptomatic treatment of ataxia.
    Archives of neurology 10/2009; 66(10):1196-201. · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A missense mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) gene underlies SCA27, an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia in humans. Mice with a targeted disruption of the Fgf14 locus (Fgf14(-/-)) develop ataxia resembling human SCA27. We tested the hypothesis that loss of FGF14 affects the firing properties of Purkinje neurons, which play an important role in motor control and coordination. Current clamp recordings from Purkinje neurons in cerebellar slices revealed attenuated spontaneous firing in Fgf14(-/-) neurons. Unlike in the wild type animals, more than 80% of Fgf14(-/-) Purkinje neurons were quiescent and failed to fire repetitively in response to depolarizing current injections. Immunohistochemical examination revealed reduced expression of Nav1.6 protein in Fgf14(-/-) Purkinje neurons. Together, these observations suggest that FGF14 is required for normal Nav1.6 expression in Purkinje neurons, and that the loss of FGF14 impairs spontaneous and repetitive firing in Purkinje neurons by altering the expression of Nav1.6 channels.
    Neurobiology of Disease 11/2008; 33(1):81-8. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium-activated potassium channels modulate calcium signaling cascades and membrane potential in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this article we will review the physiological properties, the structure activity relationships of the existing peptide and small molecule modulators and the therapeutic importance of the three small-conductance channels KCa2.1-KCa2.3 (a.k.a. SK1-SK3) and the intermediate-conductance channel KCa3.1 (a.k.a. IKCa1). The apamin-sensitive KCa2 channels contribute to the medium afterhyperpolarization and are crucial regulators of neuronal excitability. Based on behavioral studies with apamin and on observations made in several transgenic mouse models, KCa2 channels have been proposed as targets for the treatment of ataxia, epilepsy, memory disorders and possibly schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. In contrast, KCa3.1 channels are found in lymphocytes, erythrocytes, fibroblasts, proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelium and intestinal and airway epithelia and are therefore regarded as targets for various diseases involving these tissues. Since two classes of potent and selective small molecule KCa3.1 blocker, triarylmethanes and cyclohexadienes, have been identified, several of these postulates have already been validated in animal models. The triarylmethane ICA-17043 is currently in phase III clinical trials for sickle cell anemia while another triarylmethane, TRAM-34, has been shown to prevent vascular restenosis in rats and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Experiments showing that a cyclohexadiene KCa3.1 blocker reduces infarct volume in a rat subdural hematoma model further suggest KCa3.1 as a target for the treatment of traumatic and possibly ischemic brain injury. Taken together KCa2 and KCa3.1 channels constitute attractive new targets for several diseases that currently have no effective therapies.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2007; 14(13):1437-57. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many neurons, including pyramidal cells of the cortex, express a slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) that regulates their firing. Although initial findings suggested that the current underlying the sAHP could be carried through SK(Ca) channels, recent work has uncovered anomalies that are not congruent with this idea. Here, we used overexpression and dominant-negative strategies to assess the involvement of SK(Ca) channels in mediating the current underlying the sAHP in pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex. Pyramidal cells of layer V exhibit robust AHP currents composed of two kinetically and pharmacologically distinguishable currents known as the medium AHP current (I(mAHP)) and the slow AHP current (I(sAHP)). I(mAHP) is blocked by the SK(Ca) channel blockers apamin and bicuculline, whereas I(sAHP) is resistant to these agents but is inhibited by activation of muscarinic receptors. To test for a role for SK(Ca) channels, we overexpressed K(Ca)2.1 (SK1) and K(Ca)2.2 (SK2), the predominant SK(Ca) subunits expressed in the cortex, in pyramidal cells of cultured brain slices. Overexpression of K(Ca)2.1 and K(Ca)2.2 resulted in a fourfold to fivefold increase in the amplitude of I(mAHP) but had no detectable effect on I(sAHP). As an additional test, we examined I(sAHP) in a transgenic mouse expressing a truncated SK(Ca) subunit (SK3-1B) capable of acting as a dominant negative for the entire family of SK(Ca)-IK(Ca) channels. Expression of SK3-1B profoundly inhibited I(mAHP) but again had no discernable effect on I(sAHP). These results are inconsistent with the proposal that SK(Ca) channels mediate I(sAHP) in pyramidal cells and indicate that a different potassium channel mediates this current.
    Journal of Neuroscience 05/2004; 24(14):3537-42. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebellar ataxia, a devastating neurological disease, may be initiated by hyperexcitability of deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) secondary to loss of inhibitory input from Purkinje neurons that frequently degenerate in this disease. This mechanism predicts that intrinsic DCN hyperexcitability would cause ataxia in the absence of upstream Purkinje degeneration. We report the generation of a transgenic (Tg) model that supports this mechanism of disease initiation. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels, regulators of firing frequency, were silenced in the CNS of Tg mice with the dominant-inhibitory construct SK3-1B-GFP. Transgene expression was restricted to the DCN within the cerebellum and was detectable beginning on postnatal day 10, concomitant with the onset of cerebellar ataxia. Neurodegeneration was not evident up to the sixth month of age. Recordings from Tg DCN neurons revealed loss of the apamin-sensitive after-hyperpolarization current (IAHP) and increased spontaneous firing through SK channel suppression, indicative of DCN hyperexcitability. Spike duration and other electrogenic conductance were unaffected. Thus, a purely electrical alteration is sufficient to cause cerebellar ataxia, and SK openers such as the neuroprotective agent riluzole may reduce neuronal hyperexcitability and have therapeutic value. This dominant-inhibitory strategy may help define the in vivo role of SK channels in other neuronal pathways.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/2004; 113(4):582-90. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, products of the SK1-SK3 genes, regulate membrane excitability both within and outside the nervous system. We report the characterization of a SK3 variant (SK3-1C) that differs from SK3 by utilizing an alternative first exon (exon 1C) in place of exon 1A used by SK3, but is otherwise identical to SK3. Quantitative RT-PCR detected abundant expression of SK3-1C transcripts in human lymphoid tissues, skeletal muscle, trachea, and salivary gland but not the nervous system. SK3-1C did not produce functional channels when expressed alone in mammalian cells, but suppressed SK1, SK2, SK3, and IKCa1 channels, but not BKCa or KV channels. Confocal microscopy revealed that SK3-1C sequestered SK3 protein intracellularly. Dominant-inhibitory activity of SK3-1C was not due to a nonspecific calmodulin sponge effect since overexpression of calmodulin did not reverse SK3-1C-mediated intracellular trapping of SK3 protein, and calmodulin-Ca2+-dependent inactivation of CaV channels was not affected by SK3-1C overexpression. Deletion analysis identified a dominant-inhibitory segment in the SK3-1C C terminus that resembles tetramerization-coiled-coiled domains reported to enhance tetramer stability and selectivity of multimerization of many K+ channels. SK3-1C may therefore suppress calmodulin-gated SKCa/IKCa channels by trapping these channel proteins intracellularly via subunit interactions mediated by the dominant-inhibitory segment and thereby reduce functional channel expression on the cell surface. Such family-wide dominant-negative suppression by SK3-1C provides a powerful mechanism to titrate membrane excitability and is a useful approach to define the functional in vivo role of these channels in diverse tissues by their targeted silencing.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2004; 279(8):6893-904. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

475 Citations
160.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Neurology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2011
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Neurology
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Neurology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2007
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2001–2004
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physiology & Biophysics
      Irvine, CA, United States