[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular cerebral accumulation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ). Heparan sulfate (HS) is a glycosaminoglycan that is abundant in the extracellular space. The state of sulfation within the HS chain influences its ability to interact with a variety of proteins. Highly sulfated domains within HS are crucial for Aβ aggregation in vitro. Here, we investigated the expression of the sulfated domains and HS disaccharide composition in the brains of Tg2576, J20, and T41 transgenic AD mouse models, and patients with AD. RB4CD12, a phage display antibody, recognizes highly sulfated domains of HS. The RB4CD12 epitope is abundant in the basement membrane of brain vessels under physiological conditions. In the cortex and hippocampus of the mice and patients with AD, RB4CD12 strongly stained both diffuse and neuritic amyloid plaques. Interestingly, RB4CD12 also stained the intracellular granules of certain hippocampal neurons in AD brains. Disaccharide compositions in vessel-enriched and nonvasculature fractions of Tg2576 mice and AD patients were found to be comparable to those of non-transgenic and non-demented controls, respectively. The RB4CD12 epitope in amyloid plaques was substantially degraded ex vivo by Sulf-1 and Sulf-2, extracellular HS endosulfatases. These results indicate that formation of highly sulfated HS domains may be upregulated in conjunction with AD pathogenesis, and that these domains can be enzymatically remodeled in AD brains.
American Journal Of Pathology 03/2012; 180(5):2056-67. DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.01.015 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RB4CD12 is a phage display antibody that recognizes a heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan epitope. The epitope structure is proposed to contain a trisulfated disaccharide, [-IdoA(2-OSO(3))-GlcNSO(3) (6-OSO(3))-], which supports HS binding to various macromolecules such as growth factors and cytokines in central nervous tissues. Chemically modified heparins that lack the trisulfated disaccharides failed to inhibit the RB4CD12 recognition of HS chains. To determine the localization of the RB4CD12 anti-HS epitope in the brain, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis for cryocut sections of mouse brain. The RB4CD12 staining signals were colocalized with laminin and were detected abundantly in the vascular basement membrane. Bacterial heparinases eliminated the RB4CD12 staining signals. The RB4CD12 epitope localization was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Western blotting analysis revealed that the size of a major RB4CD12-positive molecule is ∼460 kDa in a vessel-enriched fraction of the mouse brain. Disaccharide analysis with reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC showed that [-IdoA(2-OSO(3))-GlcNSO(3) (6-OSO(3))-] trisulfated disaccharide residues are present in HS purified from the vessel-enriched brain fraction. These results indicated that the RB4CD12 anti-HS epitope exists in large quantities in the brain vascular basement membrane.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 11/2011; 89(11):1840-8. DOI:10.1002/jnr.22690 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heparan sulfates (HS) bind a diversity of protein ligands on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix and thus can modulate cell signaling. The state of sulfation in glucosamines and uronic acids within the chains strongly influences their binding. We have previously cloned and characterized two human extracellular endoglucosamine 6-sulfatases, HSulf-1 and HSulf-2, which selectively liberate the 6-O sulfate groups on glucosamines present in N, 6-O, and 2-O trisulfated disaccharides of intact HS and heparins. These enzymes serve important roles in development and are upregulated in a number of cancers. To determine whether the Sulfs act on the trisulfated disaccharides that exist on the cell surface, we expressed HSulfs in cultured cells and performed a flow cytometric analysis with the RB4CD12, an anti-HS antibody that recognizes N- and O-sulfated HS saccharides. The endogenously expressed level of the cell surface RB4CD12 epitope was greatly diminished in CHO, HEK293, and HeLa cells transfected with HSulf-1 or HSulf-2 cDNA. In correspondence with the RB4CD12 finding, the N, 6-O, and 2-O trisulfated disaccharides of the HS isolated from the cell surface/extracellular matrix were dramatically reduced in the Sulf-expressed HEK293 cells. We then developed an ELISA and confirmed that the RB4CD12 epitope in immobilized heparin was degraded by purified recombinant HSulf-1 and HSulf-2, and conditioned medium (CM) of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, which contain a native form of HSulf-2. Furthermore, HSulf-1 and HSulf-2 exerted activity against the epitope expressed on microvessels of mouse brains. Both HSulf activities were potently inhibited by PI-88, a sulfated heparin mimetic with anti-cancer activities. These findings provide new strategies for monitoring the extracellular remodeling of HS by Sulfs during normal and pathophysiological processes.